OIES

The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies was founded in 1982 as an autonomous centre for advanced research into the social science areas of energy issues. The Institute is committed to the idea of dialogue – between consumers and producers, government and industry and academics and decision makers. This is reflected in the membership of the Institute and in the composition of its research team, which is drawn from different national, academic and professional backgrounds.

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                    [post_date] => 2020-11-26 10:45:10
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                    [post_content] => The oil price continues to shrug off many of the downside risks and Brent remains well supported, breaking out from the $40-$45/barrel price range and recently trading above $48/barrel. This is remarkable considering the mix of bearish factors (renewed mobility restrictions and lockdowns, the return of Libyan barrels, easing of China’s imports, the potential return of Iranian barrels, uncertainty about the next move for OPEC+, the large buffers in the system) and bullish factors (positive news about the vaccines, robust Asian demand, high OPEC+ compliance). In this podcast David Ledesma discusses with Bassam Fattouh his latest paper with Andreas Economou: Oil Market Recovery and Balance of Risks. How has the oil market been faring with the renewed restrictions and lockdowns? How have refineries been coping with the uneven impact of the shock? What are the main risks from the supply side? How have oil relations between Saudi Arabia and Russia evolved since the breakup of the OPEC+ agreement in March 2020? Is OPEC+ cohesion at risk? What about the potential return of Iran production now that Biden has won the US elections?  Will OPEC+ accommodate the potential return of Iranian barrels? How serious is the ‘missing barrels’ issue? What options do OPEC+ face?
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Oil Market Recovery and the Balance of Risks
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                    [post_content] => In this podcast James Henderson discusses a new OIES paper on the future of the Ukrainian gas market and its interconnections with Russia and Europe with Simon Pirani. The podcast first reviews the current state of the Ukrainian gas sector following a decade of dramatic change and then assesses the outlook for further transit of Russian gas, development of the internal market and future opportunities for using the country’s storage assets. James and Simon also discuss the continuing liberalisation and deregulation of the Ukrainian gas market, as well as the prospects for domestic gas production. The overall conclusion is that Ukraine has taken very positive steps to reduce its dependence on Russian gas and gas transit revenues and continues to make progress towards fuller integration with the European gas market.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - The market takes shape: The Ukrainian gas sector to 2030
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                    [post_content] => A key element of LNG trading, the buying and selling of LNG cargoes (or strips of cargoes) on shorter term contracts of less than three years duration, is cargo optimization. LNG traders, once they have secured positions in the LNG chain, seek to ‘optimize’ their LNG position or ‘LNG book’. This optimization process is often seen, or referred to, as a ‘black box’ with companies using their portfolio of supply and sales contracts, together with shipping capacity, to maximise returns through optimizing their flows of LNG. In this podcast David Ledesma discusses with Mashal Jaffery and Peter Thompson of Baringa Partners the optimization ‘black box’, why such optimization is important to today’s LNG business model and how companies can carry it out and what approaches can be taken.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - LNG Portfolio Optimization: Challenge, Opportunity and Necessity.
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                    [post_content] => The Grand Tortue Ahmeyim (GTA) gas field straddling Mauritania and Senegal’s deep offshore waters is being developed to launch the first LNG project in this subregion of Africa. Phase 1 of this project consists of a floating liquefied natural gas facility with a design LNG capacity of about 2.5 mtpa. But this initial phase of the GTA LNG project would represent only 8 percent of Mauritania and Senegal’s 30 mtpa of planned or under consideration LNG capacity. A challenging LNG development endeavour, especially under uncertain international gas market conditions. In this podcast, David Ledesma talks to Mostefa Ouki and asks if Mauritania and Senegal become Africa’s new gas province and play a future gas exporter role in the Atlantic basin and possibly beyond?
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Mauritania - Senegal: the quest for a gas exporter role
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                    [post_content] => In this podcast, David Ledesma talks to Malcolm Keay and David Robinson who discuss their new OIES paper on recent “glimpses” of what the future electricity system may bring, notably the rise of intermittent solar PV and wind energy as a share of total electricity generation. They reflect on these glimpses - which were visible during the early stages of COVID-19 - and propose a two-market approach that would help to address the challenge of integrating intermittent renewables, especially by encouraging flexible demand to match output from renewables. Since this approach would require fundamental change to existing markets, that might be too much to expect in the near term, they recommend experimenting with the introduction of individual elements of the two-market approach. One proposal is for governments that organize centralized auctions for renewables to use them to incentivize demand-side flexibility through supply contracts that mirror the generation contracts with renewable generators.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Glimpses of the future electricity system?
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                    [post_date] => 2020-10-20 11:33:01
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                    [post_content] => In this podcast David Ledesma discusses a recent OIES Energy Insight on MENA oil exporting countries’ diversification strategy under deep uncertainty with the co-author Bassam Fattouh. They cover a range of issues including how Middle East oil exporters are coping with the double shocks of COVID-19 and low oil prices; what measures they are taking to meet the budget deficits; the factors shaping their oil policy; the long-term challenges they face given that their dependency on oil revenues remains very high; the strategies they can adopt to manage the risks associated with the energy transition; and the strategies they can adopt to increase the resilience of their energy sector in the face of potential disruption.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - MENA oil exporting countries’ diversification strategy under deep uncertainty
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                    [post_date] => 2020-10-19 10:23:10
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                    [post_content] => This latest Gas Quarterly provides our regular review of price trends in the natural gas and LNG markets, and notes a significant change in the relationship between prices in North America, Europe and Asia. In the main articles we look at Russia's declining market share in Turkey as Gazprom faces increasing competition from LNG and other sources of pipeline gas, ahead of imminent contract renegotiations on import contracts. We also assess the implications of Turkey's new gas discovery offshore in the Black Sea, casting some doubt on the most optimistic expectations but nevertheless acknowledging its potential importance as the country seeks to reduce import dependency. Finally, we review the performance of Algerian exports in 2020 and question whether the country's growth targets are realistic unless Sonatrach changes its marketing strategy for exports and domestic prices are increased.

 
                    [post_title] => Quarterly Gas Review - Issue 11
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                    [post_date] => 2020-10-09 11:45:53
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                    [post_content] => In this podcast David Ledesma discusses a new OIES paper on renewal of Turkish long-term contracts and possible market transition away from oil-linked prices with the author Gulmira Rzayeva. They cover the lack of gas market liberalisation, which resulted in absence of a supply/demand price discovery mechanism enabling it to import gas at a price reflecting true market fundamentals. They also discuss the contractual terms that Turkey wants to change and the Botas assertive position in the upcoming negotiations. They discussion also covers the position of the suppliers including Gazprom, who will inevitably give concessions in order to maintain the market share.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - The Renewal of Turkey’s Long Term Contracts: Natural gas market transition or ‘business as usual’?
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                    [post_date] => 2020-10-02 12:07:30
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                    [post_content] => In this podcast James Henderson discusses a new OIES paper on the challenge for the EU to provide a suitable regulatory framework for its new Hydrogen Strategy with Alex Barnes and Katja Yafimava. The podcast first outlines a number of EU documents where the outlook and ambitions are discussed, before focussing on the main aims of the Hydrogen Strategy and its ultimate goal of encouraging renewable hydrogen while allowing some role for low-carbon hydrogen. The discussion addresses the financial and regulatory incentives that are being discussed to encourage investment, and also covers the prospects for infrastructure development and the rules that will need to be in place and adopted to achieve the EU goals. Finally, the question of whether the current gas regulations can be adapted to suit the development of a hydrogen market is posed, with the authors expressing the view that more radical change may be needed.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - EU Hydrogen Vision: regulatory opportunities and challenges
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                    [post_date] => 2020-09-28 11:58:52
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                    [post_content] => The year 2020 is an important year for China. President Xi Jinping, in his New Year speech in January 2020, called it a year of ‘milestone significance’ as the country was set to achieve its goal of building a ‘moderately prosperous society’—which entails doubling the size of the economy from its 2010 levels and eradicating poverty. At the same time, 2020 is an important year in the policy planning process, given that it is the final year of the 13th five-year plan (FYP) and the start of the drafting process for the upcoming plan, which will span 2021–2025.

The outbreak of COVID-19 complicated this critical year. The severity of the pandemic’s economic impact has refocused the government’s attention on short-term recovery, with a view to supporting employment and the private sector. At the same time, the deteriorating international political environment and the sharp escalation in US–China tensions following the outbreak have highlighted the importance of self-sufficiency in energy and technology. As China emerges from its COVID-19 economic paralysis and gets back to work, its priorities for the next plan are still in flux. China’s policy choices matter: With Beijing emphasizing reliability and affordability, the coal lobby is arguing for more coal-fired capacity. Meanwhile, the government’s pledge to develop competitive power markets is seen as a key way to support renewables, but the state’s enduring influence in the sector could complicate the process. Ongoing efforts to liberalize the oil and gas markets, in the context of relatively low oil prices, are unleashing an army of new importers into global markets. While this may serve to diversify the sector – and ultimately erode the monopoly of state-owned importers – it also suggests a rising import dependency. These varying, and seemingly contradictory, policy priorities are now being debated in China as the government prepares its blueprint for the next five years. This edition of the Oxford Energy Forum assesses some of these policy choices, the trade-offs between competing priorities, and what they mean for the 14th FYP.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - China's Energy Policies in the Wake of COVID-19 - Issue 125
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                    [post_date] => 2020-09-23 11:22:14
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                    [post_content] => In this podcast James Henderson discusses a new OIES paper on LNG demand in 10 emerging Asian countries with the main authors Mike Fulwood and Martin Lambert. They cover the key drivers for LNG demand across the region, focussing mainly on the power sector, while also looking at the impact of declining indigenous production on the need for LNG imports. They also discuss the key policy drivers that can help or hinder future gas demand and assess the impact of LNG prices on the competitive position of gas. They also consider the potential for infrastructure constraints and how these are being addressed in the various countries before providing an overall conclusion on the potential for significant demand growth over the next 20-30 years.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Emerging Asia LNG Demand
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                    [post_date] => 2020-09-18 12:21:35
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                    [post_content] => Following the sharp recovery in the oil price, the Brent price has been stuck in the narrow $40/b-$45/b range since July and despite the heightened uncertainty, volatility has been exceptionally low. What factors are driving the recent price behaviour? When will oil demand recover to its pre-virus level? What explains OPEC+ high compliance? Looking forward, what are the trade-offs that OPEC+ face? Have there been any fundamental shifts in Saudi oil policy over this cycle? Will US shale recover to its 2019 peak? When will the oil price break out from this current range? In this podcast David Ledesma talks with Bassam Fattouh about his new paper with Andreas Economou titled: After the Initial Oil Rebound: What Next for Market Fundamentals and Prices?
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - After the Initial Oil Rebound: What Next for Market Fundamentals and Prices?
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            [12] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 41055
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                    [post_date] => 2020-09-17 12:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-09-17 11:22:03
                    [post_content] => China’s oil demand has almost grown by over 9 mb/d over the past two decades, accounting on average for one-third of global oil demand growth every year. Going forward, however, its oil use is expected to grow by 3–4 mb/d by 2040. Much of the new consumption is estimated to come from rising incomes and the emerging middle class, and despite the short term impact of COVID-19, this remains the trajectory for China. But our latest research suggests that consumption growth could err on the lower side of that scale, because of the importance of technological development and electrification. In this podcast, David Ledesma and Michal Meidan unpack these trends, and discuss what they mean for the short term and long term outlook for China’s oil demand.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - China’s oil demand in the wake of COVID-19
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-09-17 12:22:03
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            [13] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 40796
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-09-08 12:10:25
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-09-08 11:10:25
                    [post_content] => This issue of Oxford Energy Forum (OEF) is dedicated to electricity networks. Over the last decade, decarbonization, decentralization and digitalization (3D) have transformed the electricity system. Within this changing environment electricity networks are required to remain stable and secure while additionally facilitating net-zero-carbon policies. The increased level of low-carbon heating/cooling and transport along with changes in the operating environment of networks due to 3D trends mean that these companies need to transform to support decarbonization. There may be a need for further investments in grid capacity, but less so if networks have the incentives to support the decentralization paradigm in a way that reduces the costs of network reinforcement. New sources of flexibility – such as distributed generation, storage, and demand response – provide alternative solutions to both short-term congestion management and long-term capacity upgrades. From a system perspective, however, minimizing the network costs – and consequently the cost of achieving decarbonization targets – requires a higher level of strategic coordination than the current energy governance delivers. This coordination needs to occur not just between transmission and distribution networks but also between electricity and gas and other energy vectors such as heat and hydrogen. . Therefore, it is important to reassess, adjust and innovate regulation, market design as well as roles and institutions to enable electricity networks to make efficient investment and operational decisions and integrate an increasing breadth of network users.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Electricity Networks in a Net-Zero-Carbon Economy - Issue 124
                    [post_excerpt] => 
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                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-electricity-networks-in-a-net-zero-carbon-economy-issue-124
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-09-08 12:10:25
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            [14] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 40134
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-08-12 10:58:44
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-08-12 09:58:44
                    [post_content] => In this podcast David Ledesma talks with Agnieszka Ason about her new paper on scenarios for Asian long-term LNG contracts (LNG SPAs) before and after COVID-19. The paper argues that recent market events have delivered multiple incentives for price reviews and exposed three key needs for changes to Asian LNG SPAs: (1) to abandon oil-linked pricing, (2) to increase operational flexibility, and (3) to re-examine contract adjustment mechanisms. Looking into the future, the paper submits the idea of comprehensive contract renegotiations and concludes that a transition driven by contract reviews executed by the parties, gradually recalibrating the key contractual arrangements, would be an optimal scenario for Asian LNG SPAs in the 2020s.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Scenarios for Asian long-term contracts before and after COVID-19
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-08-12 10:58:44
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            [15] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 39960
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                    [post_date] => 2020-08-05 12:51:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-08-05 11:51:03
                    [post_content] => The oil demand shock, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, placed markets and benchmarks under considerable stress. Both the physical and financial market infrastructure were tested and stretched, but it then adapted, with physical differentials and freight rates allowing crude to flow from surplus areas to demand centres. In the process, however, WTI turned negative, the oil benchmarks in the Persian Gulf, that are supposed to value the same types of crudes, diverged, and the Shanghai futures contract overshot other benchmarks. In this podcast, David Ledesma discusses these developments with Bassam Fattouh, Adi Imsirovic, and Michal Meidan as they reflect on what these events mean for global benchmarks and their future evolution.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - The oil demand shock and benchmarks
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-08-05 12:51:22
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            [16] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 39933
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-08-04 11:28:16
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-08-04 10:28:16
                    [post_content] => In this OIES podcast James Henderson talks to Martin Lambert about his latest Energy Comment on the EU’s new hydrogen strategy. They review the key elements of the strategy and provide thoughts on the main goals, highlighting the challenges that will be faced in meeting hydrogen production targets, in particular via the "green hydrogen" route. They also discuss the plans for expanding the consumption of hydrogen in Europe and assess the infrastructure questions that will need to be answered if and when hydrogen takes on a greater role in the region, while noting the extensive state support that will be needed in the early years of the implementation of the strategy. Finally, they note the increasing prevalence of hydrogen strategies around the world and discuss the key role that hydrogen can play in the energy transition.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - EU Hydrogen Strategy - A case for urgent action towards implementation
                    [post_excerpt] => 
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-08-04 11:28:16
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            [17] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 39697
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-07-27 10:51:15
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-07-27 09:51:15
                    [post_content] => The COVID-19 pandemic may be giving us glimpses of what the future of the energy sector will bring; and the glimpses keep coming as the pandemic continues with no early end in sight. There are two general themes that run through the articles in this Forum, reflecting that we are still in the middle of a global crisis. One is that uncertainty about the longer-term is even greater than usual, because we do not know how governments and consumers are going to behave in a post-COVID world. The other is the tension between short-term imperatives (financial stresses) and the longer-term need for investment and adaptation that is also unusually high. The articles in this issue reflect a wide diversity of views on the effect of COVID-19 on the energy transition, ranging from acceleration of the process to slowing it down, with some arguing that it will have little lasting impact. The professional background of the contributors helps to explain the diversity of views, with articles from different parts of the energy sector, the financial sector, NGOs, and think tanks. Nevertheless, there is a general acceptance that the energy transition was already well underway before COVID-19 and that the recovery programme could well determine the nature and the speed of the transition in different parts of the world and reinforce global trends that were already apparent. Most authors believe that stimulus measures to limit the human and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic offer a chance to rebuild a cleaner and more sustainable world, but others are more sceptical. There also seems to be an acceptance that the pace of the energy transition will not be uniform across the globe and that weakened international cooperation reduces the chance of fast-tracking and mainstreaming the low-carbon transition globally.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - COVID-19 and the Energy Transition - Issue 123
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
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                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-covid-19-and-the-energy-transition-issue-123
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-07-27 10:51:15
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            [18] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 39574
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-07-22 11:35:08
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-07-22 10:35:08
                    [post_content] => In this latest OIES Podcast James Henderson discusses the July Quarterly Gas Review with Mike Fulwood and Jack Sharples. They review the impact of COVID 19 on global gas markets by examining various key indicators and also by updating our global gas model and extending the range of our forecasts to 2025. After a look at various price indicators they review four key topics. The first considers the storage situation in Europe and the impact of LNG flows. The second reviews physical flows of Russian gas, a key balancing source of gas supply in Europe, via various transit routes in the first half of 2020. The third addresses our forecasts for global gas supply and demand, with a focus on the LNG market, in the wake of the COVID 19 crisis and extends the analysis to 2025. The overall conclusion is that global gas demand can rebound to 2019 levels in 2021, but that it will be 2025 before the full impact of the COVID 19 crisis has unwound as it will take five years before our previous pre-COVID base case forecasts can be met. Finally, we return to the theme of Russian gas exports and look at Gazprom’s developing Asian plans, which were the focus of the company’s recent AGM.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Quarterly Gas Review
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-quarterly-gas-review
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-07-22 11:35:08
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-07-22 10:35:08
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                    [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=39574
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            [19] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 39273
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-07-10 11:01:30
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-07-10 10:01:30
                    [post_content] => As China sets out its post COVID-19 recovery package, it is looking to ‘new infrastructure’ and ‘new urbanisation’ to economic growth and foster indigenous innovation. While these have long been tenets of the government’s economic rebalancing agenda, they have gained additional urgency as fears of a potential technological decoupling with the US rise. There is considerable debate whether this recovery package will be “green” or “brown”, but in any event, it is set to accelerate the electrification of the Chinese economy. But will decarbonisation also accelerate? In this podcast, Anders Hove and Michal Meidan discuss the drivers and contradictions in China’s renewables policy post COVID-19 and the importance of energy security, markets and  technology.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Current direction for renewable energy in China
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-07-10 11:13:12
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                    [ID] => 39024
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                    [post_date] => 2020-07-01 14:11:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-07-01 13:11:00
                    [post_content] => This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum follows on from OIES’s third transport workshop, held in Oxford in late 2019. The workshop focused on three factors that are likely to influence the uptake of electric vehicles (EVs) in the transport fleet: government policy incentives, consumer choice, and the need for consumer-centric business models. EVs are still a nascent technology and rely heavily on government incentives. Governments have a range of instruments at their disposal, from subsidizing EVs to taxing or banning internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs). These policies are not equivalent in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and public acceptability. For instance, consumers may prefer subsidies on EVs to taxes on ICEVs, but subsidies are inefficient. Similarly, bans on ICEVs may be effective, but may not be publicly acceptable if they limit consumer choice. This suggests that government incentives and policies to encourage EV uptake need to be designed with careful consideration of the possible trade-offs between efficiency, effectiveness, and consumer preferences. Meanwhile, consumer choices take into account not only government incentives but also their own preferences (e.g. for shared mobility or car ownership) and constraints (e.g. budgets). Understanding the determinants of consumer choice is therefore crucial to avoiding misalignments between the design of government incentives and consumer preferences. To be viable, transportation-sector business models need to be consumer-centric – in other words, built around a deep understanding of customers’ needs, preferences, and values and the contribution that each of these makes to the company’s profitability. The eight articles in this issue debate different aspects of these fundamental trade-offs and their policy implications. The articles in this issue debate different aspects of these fundamental trade-offs and their policy implications.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - EV Uptake in the Transport Fleet: Consumer Choice, Policy Incentives and Consumer-Centric Business Models - Issue 122
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
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                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-ev-uptake-in-the-transport-fleet-consumer-choice-policy-incentives-and-consumer-centric-business-models-issue-122
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-07-01 14:11:00
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-07-01 13:11:00
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            [21] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 38896
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-06-26 11:20:27
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-06-26 10:20:27
                    [post_content] => Over the last three decades several studies were conducted on the elusive development of regional or sub-regional natural gas networks to boost natural gas exchanges within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. However, due to commercial and non-commercial factors, this regional or sub-regional trade remains quite limited. In this podcast David Ledesma interviews Mostefa Ouki, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute, to discuss whether the current global multiple crisis situation (collapse of oil and gas prices and Covid-19 pandemic) could result in an improvement of intra-MENA gas trade.

The podcast focuses on the following five key aspects that affect this trade: resilience or non-resilience of MENA’s natural gas demand to the adverse impact of this multiple crisis environment; main sources of gas supply within the MENA region that could drive a potential gas trade expansion; current gas export prices and prevailing domestic natural gas prices in MENA markets; availability of regional gas import infrastructure; and, finally, it considers whether there is enough political will to overcome political tensions and rivalries in the MENA region to allow for improved intra-MENA gas trade.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Is there hope for improved intra-MENA gas trade?
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-is-there-hope-for-improved-intra-mena-gas-trade
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-06-26 11:55:48
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-06-26 10:55:48
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            [22] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 38869
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-06-25 10:32:31
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-06-25 09:32:31
                    [post_content] => In this podcast James Henderson talks with Alex Barnes about his new paper which questions whether the current regulatory structure for energy markets in Europe is suitable to cope with the ever more urgent need to meet decarbonisation objectives. It discusses the evolution of the regulation of gas markets in Europe to date, before addressing the new EU decarbonisation goals and the implications they have for gas. James and Alex then debate whether the current regulations provide a level playing field for gas as it seeks to decarbonise, and discuss what key fundamental changes may need to be made to provide suitable incentives for the development of new technologies in the gas sector. Finally, they talk about the actions that are currently being taken by companies to create a unified stance across the gas industry and outline a timetable for key regulatory actions that are required in the next few years if long-term decarbonisation targets are to be met.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Can the current EU regulatory framework deliver decarbonisation of gas?
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-can-the-current-eu-regulatory-framework-deliver-decarbonisation-of-gas
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-06-25 10:42:07
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-06-25 09:42:07
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            [23] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 38842
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                    [post_date] => 2020-06-24 10:55:05
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                    [post_content] => European gas prices have crashed below $2/MMBtu this summer. Storage in Europe, which has played a crucial role in absorbing excess LNG, could be full in August. The moment of truth will then have arrived for the global gas market and, unless more supply is shut in, prices could turn negative. The forward curve suggests a doubling of TTF prices in summer 2021 over 2020, which may only happen if LNG flows to Europe are significantly reduced in 2021. This would require a big rebound in Asia LNG demand of the order of 20 per cent year on year. In the absence of this, prices in Europe, and in Asia, may stay at stubbornly low levels through 2021, prompting more LNG shut-ins.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - $2 Gas in Europe (Part III): Down, Down, Deeper and Down
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
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                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-2-gas-in-europe-part-iii-down-down-deeper-and-down
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-07-10 11:28:52
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-07-10 10:28:52
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            [24] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 38518
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-06-12 10:12:01
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-06-12 09:12:01
                    [post_content] => In this latest podcast David Ledesma interviews James Henderson about his latest book on the Russian gas industry entitled "The Globalisation of Russian Gas: Political and Commercial Catalysts". Their wide-ranging discussion encompasses changes in the domestic Russian market which are staring to have an impact on Russia's export strategy, the current state of Gazprom's export business in Europe and its political consequences, and the emergence of new markets for Russian gas. In particular this means Asia, where a new Gazprom pipeline has started to export gas to China but where LNG is also playing a key role. In light of this change, the podcast addresses the issue of competition between Russian actors in the export market and assesses the likelihood that Russia's gas export strategy has now developed two main strands, a pipeline business led by Gazprom and an LNG business led by Novatek. The commercial, and potential political, consequences of this may be profound and the podcast explores their potential impact on the global as market.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - The Globalisation of Russian Gas: Political and Commercial Catalysts
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-the-globalisation-of-russian-gas-political-and-commercial-catalysts
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-06-12 10:17:26
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-06-12 09:17:26
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            [25] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 38467
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-06-10 11:20:38
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-06-10 10:20:38
                    [post_content] => In this podcast James Henderson talks with Vitaly Yermakov about his new paper on the Russia-Poland gas relationship and its changing dynamics. It discusses the evolution of the Russia-Poland gas relationship, identifies the problems that have emerged, and assesses the opportunities and the risks for both sides stemming from the end of the long-term transit and supply contracts. It also examines how new Russian pipelines and the changes in flows of Russian gas to Europe are likely to impact the transit of Russian gas via Poland and what this means for Poland’s energy security.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Russia-Poland gas relationship
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-russia-poland-gas-relationship
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-06-10 11:20:38
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-06-10 10:20:38
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=38467
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            [26] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 38276
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-06-03 10:57:47
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-06-03 09:57:47
                    [post_content] => In this OIES podcast David Ledesma interviews Patrick Heather about his analysis of European traded gas hubs in 2019, according to his five Key Elements and also introduces a global churn comparison between Henry Hub, TTF, NBP and JKM. The podcast highlights how TTF has seen phenomenal growth in the last three years, in every metric, and that TTF is the European hub that has the greatest number of market participants, trades the widest range of products over the entire curve and has by far the highest churn rate. At a global level, TTF and NBP are important benchmarks in their own market areas but they are also benchmark hubs for their regions and for the pricing of LNG cargoes.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - European Traded Gas Hubs: the supremacy of TTF
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-european-traded-gas-hubs-the-supremacy-of-ttf
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-06-03 10:57:47
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-06-03 09:57:47
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            [27] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 38065
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-05-26 13:11:26
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-05-26 12:11:26
                    [post_content] => In this OIES podcast James Henderson discusses the availability of Ukrainian gas storage for the European market with Simon Pirani and Jack Sharples, the joint authors of a new OIES paper on this important topic. With European storage capacity likely to hit its ceiling during the summer, the option to move gas into Ukraine’s huge storage reservoirs is becoming a vital issue, and this podcast addresses the questions of how much storage is available, how it can be accessed and how physical storage is being supplemented by backhaul, or virtual reverse, import capacity. The discussion also addresses the potential for further integration of the Ukrainian and European gas markets and possible Russian reactions to this.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - European gas storage: backhaul helps open Ukrainian safety valve
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-european-gas-storage-backhaul-helps-open-ukrainian-safety-valve
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-28 10:21:35
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-28 09:21:35
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            [28] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 37961
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-05-22 11:00:43
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-05-22 10:00:43
                    [post_content] => In this podcast, David Ledesma discusses the prospects for Central Asian natural gas production and exports in the 2020s with Simon Pirani, Senior Research Fellow at OIES, who has just published a research paper on this subject. Central Asian exports to China were 47 bcm in 2018, compared with 16 bcm to Russia. Exports to China are down this year due to Covid-19 but will remain the main focus for the Central Asian producers, Pirani argues; the 55 bcm Central Asia-China pipeline, the largest such corridor constructed in recent decades, may be expanded to carry 85 bcm. China's relationship with Turkmenistan is an issue to watch. Greater inward investment, mostly by Asian companies; expanding petrochemicals capacity; and, in Kazakhstan, trade-offs between producing gas and reinjecting it to boost oil output, are other factors that will shape the sector in this decade.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Central Asian Gas
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-central-asian-gas
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-22 11:00:43
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-22 10:00:43
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            [29] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 37879
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-05-19 12:55:33
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-05-19 11:55:33
                    [post_content] => In this podcast David Ledesma discusses with James Henderson, Jonathan Stern and Mike Fulwood the OIES’s latest Quarterly Report on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent global economic crisis on the global gas market. They examine the link between gas demand and GDP overall, before discussing the immediate impact of the crisis on gas consumption in various key regions, including Europe, China, India and the US. Then discuss the consequences for gas supply and trade, in particular highlighting the increased flows of LNG to Europe and its impact on storage levels. Concluding that if current trends continue, storage in Europe could be full by mid-summer, potentially catalysing a further decline in prices or the need for supply shut-ins. Finally they look at the potential longer-term consequences for the gas sector, asking eight critical questions about its role in the future global energy economy.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Impact of COVID-19 on Global Gas Markets
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-impact-of-covid-19-on-global-gas-markets
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-19 12:55:33
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-19 11:55:33
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
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            [30] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 37775
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-05-15 11:54:35
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-05-15 10:54:35
                    [post_content] => In this podcast Bassam Fattouh and Adi Imsirovic discuss with David Ledesma the effects of the demand shock on oil benchmarks. The sharp contraction in demand has stressed the oil markets to the core causing massive oversupply which has quickly overwhelmed available storage. These have exposed the weaknesses in some benchmarks and the widened divide between physical and financial oil markets. In this podcast, they discuss the negative WTI prices witnessed on 20 April, and the difference of well over $6 in the price assessment for the same crude (Oman) and the heavy lifting done by Dated Brent and quality differentials. Concluding that, in spite of this, markets have worked reasonably well and as intended.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Oil Benchmarks Under Stress
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
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                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oil-benchmarks-under-stress-2
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:36:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:36:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
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                    [post_type] => publications
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            [31] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 37747
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-05-14 12:27:30
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-05-14 11:27:30
                    [post_content] => Decarbonisation of oil and gas – is it still a relevant topic when the business environment is changing so quickly, oil and gas companies are focusing on how to survive yet another extreme price cycle and governments all over the world grapple with one of the most severe economic crises? Nevertheless, the issue of transition and decarbonisation will remain dominant, driven by environmental concerns, changes in public perceptions, investors’ attitudes, energy and climate policy, and the development of new technologies. But looking at the business environment today, in a world where cost cutting is rife, and many companies are in “hibernation mode”, the key question is how can companies afford investment in decarbonization and exactly which solutions could be most efficient?
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Decarbonisation Pathways for Oil and Gas
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => decarbonisation-pathways-for-oil-and-gas
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:36:32
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:36:32
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            [32] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 37469
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-05-04 12:55:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-05-04 11:55:04
                    [post_content] => In this podcast, David Ledesma talks to Michal Meidan, Director of the China Energy Research Programme at the Institute, following the publication of her OIES Comment, “China’s rocky road to recovery”, which looks at China’s oil demand growth this year. The podcast also addresses some emerging trends in China’s natural gas market and discusses the outlook for macroeconomic and energy policies as China gradually gets back to work. David and Michal discuss the impact of low oil and gas prices as well as market liberalisation on demand, and question whether China will be able to absorb the excess global oil and LNG as it recovers from COVID-19.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - China's rocky road to recovery
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => chinas-rocky-road-to-recovery-2
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:37:00
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:37:00
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
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            [33] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 37388
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-05-01 10:13:37
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-05-01 09:13:37
                    [post_content] => In this podcast, David Ledesma talks to Anupama Sen, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute, to discuss her recently published OIES Comment, “A Double Edged Sword for India’s Energy Sector?”, which looks at the implications of the coronavirus pandemic for India’s energy sector. Like several countries before it, on 25 March India’s 1.3 billion population went into a 21-day lockdown, now extended to 3 May, enforced by its government in order to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus. The author argues that the net impact on India’s energy sector is likely to be shaped by three factors: government support measures to mitigate the economic fallout of the pandemic; the level of international oil prices – which could constrain or contribute to fiscal space; and, the global economic impact of the pandemic and its effect on the competitiveness of India’s energy sector.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - A double-edged sword for India's energy sector?
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => a-double-edged-sword-for-indias-energy-sector-2
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:37:23
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:37:23
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            [34] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 37253
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-04-27 10:30:55
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-04-27 09:30:55
                    [post_content] => Electricity consumers are critical to the success of decarbonization. The decisions they make - behind their electricity meters - could fundamentally change the energy sector. In this Podcast, David Ledesma discusses with David Robinson, Senior Research Fellow at the OIES, how ‘behind the meter’ generation will be important to the decarbonisation of the electricity sector. In the past, most consumers were passive; they had no control over how electricity was generated and supplied; and they had no option but to pay for electricity supplied by the system.  Now, consumers have the potential to become active in the management of their electricity supplies, for instance by generating electricity with rooftop solar, storing electricity in batteries and buying flexible electrical equipment that operates when renewable energy is available. They also have the potential to decarbonize their own energy consumption by investing in electric heat pumps to replace oil and gas boilers and in electric vehicles to replace vehicles running on gasoline and diesel. Apart from contributing to decarbonization and lowering their own costs, active consumers can provide flexibility services to the power system and thereby facilitate the penetration of intermittent renewables. However, for all these good things to occur, the economic signals consumers receive behind the meter have to be efficient. Unfortunately, price signals in many countries are inefficient or non-existent; this is likely to slow decarbonization and unnecessarily raise costs. This paper emphasizes the importance of encouraging only efficient consumer decisions, especially for investment and use of resources behind the meter. It focuses on eliminating existing price (fiscal and regulatory) distortions in certain liberalized electricity markets in the European Union (EU) and on creating or changing markets to reflect new economic and technological conditions.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Prices behind the meter: efficient economic signals to support decarbonization
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => prices-behind-the-meter-efficient-economic-signals-to-support-decarbonization-2
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:37:50
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:37:50
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            [35] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 36992
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-04-16 12:16:40
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-04-16 11:16:40
                    [post_content] => In this OIES podcast James Henderson discusses the impact of the OPEC+ meeting and the Covid-19 pandemic on global oil markets with Bassam Fattouh and Vitaly Yermakov. The discussion covers the fundamental supply and demand balance in the oil market, assessing the huge demand shock caused by the lock-down in many major economies and also the supply impact of Saudi and Russian production strategy over the past month. Bassam provides his views on the initial Saudi decision to increase production since March but then to agree to a huge production cut in April, while Vitaly discusses Russian thinking on the global oil market and why the country feels in a strong position to survive a lengthy downturn in the oil price. In addition, the podcast addresses the impact of recent US intervention in the oil supply discussions, and debates whether this has fundamentally changed the nature of oil market management.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - The impact of the OPEC+ meeting and the Covid-19 pandemic on global oil markets
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => the-impact-of-the-opec-meeting-and-the-covid-19-pandemic-on-global-oil-markets
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:38:14
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:38:14
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            [36] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 36941
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-04-14 11:18:02
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-04-14 10:18:02
                    [post_content] => This podcast is a discussion between David Ledesma and James Henderson on the key conclusions from the recent Natural Gas Research Programme’s Spring Sponsors' meeting, which was held as a series of 7 webinars over two days in early April. The key topics discussed included: the short-term gas market outlook and the potential for storage in Europe to be full by mid-summer; the prospects for the oil market amid the current collapse in demand and the end of the OPEC+ agreement; the potential for a hydrogen economy and how this might be implemented, in particular focusing on blue hydrogen as a facilitator of green hydrogen development; gas markets in South East Europe and the impact of Turk Stream; the competition between coal and gas in Asia and the requirements for gas demand growth in the region; the issue of methane emissions in the oil and gas industry and how they can be mitigated; and finally the question of Russia's gas export strategy, focusing particularly on future export routes via Ukraine, Nord Stream and the Yamal Europe pipeline. The podcast covers the main points from each of the discussions and highlights research that OIES is continuing to work on in each area.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Short-term weakness, long-term uncertainties - Key messages from the OIES Gas Research Programme's Spring Sponsors' Meeting
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => short-term-weakness-long-term-uncertainties-key-messages-from-the-oies-gas-research-programmes-spring-sponsors-meeting
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:38:42
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:38:42
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            [37] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 36392
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-03-27 11:57:38
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-03-27 11:57:38
                    [post_content] => The contraction in oil demand due to the spread of COVID-2019 and dissolution of the OPEC+ agreement in March have combined to generate shockwaves through the energy and financial markets. As governments all over the world grapple with one of the most severe economic crisis since the Global Financial Crisis and as the oil and gas industry is focusing on how to survive yet another extreme price cycle, some are of the view that climate change issues and decarbonization efforts will reduce in importance and may even fall off the agenda of some companies. However, energy companies have a long-term horizon, their investments extend for multiple decades and the projects planned and delivered today will go through many cycles. Over these cycles, energy companies should not be distracted from the structural trends shaping the industry. The issue of transition and decarbonization will remain dominant, driven by environmental concerns, changes in public perceptions, investors’ attitudes, energy and climate policy, and the development of new technologies. In fact, one could argue that the current instability witnessed in oil markets and its underlying causes may render the oil and gas sector less attractive to investors and reinforce calls for an even faster transition from hydrocarbons. This issue of the Forum is focused on the potential for transformations in the oil and gas industry during the energy transition and its dramatic decarbonization.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Decarbonization Pathways for Oil and Gas - Issue 121
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-decarbonization-pathways-for-oil-and-gas-issue-121
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-03-27 12:28:01
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-03-27 12:28:01
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            [38] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 36173
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-03-19 12:09:31
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-03-19 12:09:31
                    [post_content] => In this podcast, David Ledesma interviews Michal Meidan, director of the China Energy Research Programme about the key takeaways from the programme's inaugural 'China Day' workshop on 'Geopolitical shifts and China's energy policy priorities'. The workshop brings together programme sponsors alongside a number of experts to discuss some of the key trends in China and their implications for energy policies and markets. Initially, discussions were planned to revolve around the policy priorities for the final year of the 13th Five Year plan and drafting for the next plan, including questions such as environmental policies, reform and liberalisation and to what extent US-China trade tensions would alter these priorities. The outbreak of COVID-19 changed both attendance and the focus of the day, as markets grapple with the uncertainty surrounding the global response to COVID-19. Yet, as this podcast relays, the discussions touched equally on the short-term challenges associated with COVID-19 and on the medium-term policy priorities for China's energy policy and markets.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Geopolitical shifts and China's energy policy priorities
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => geopolitical-shifts-and-chinas-energy-policy-priorities-2
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:39:11
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:39:11
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=36173
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            [39] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 36097
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-03-16 15:38:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-03-16 15:38:04
                    [post_content] => In early February 2020, China's largest LNG importer invoked force majeure on cargoes. A month later, PetroChina followed suit, issuing force majeure notices on LNG and pipeline deliveries. The fall in domestic demand and logistical challenges at ports due to the COVID-19 response promoted the notices, weighing on an LNG market that is already struggling with weak demand and growing supplies. In this podcast, David Ledesma, Agniezska Ason and Michal Meidan discuss force majeure clauses in LNG sales and purchase agreements; why Chinese buyers opted to invoke them and what they mean for contract renegotiations going forward.  
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Force majeure notices from Chinese LNG buyers: prelude to a renegotiation?
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => force-majeure-notices-from-chinese-lng-buyers-prelude-to-a-renegotiation-2
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                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:39:40
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:39:40
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                    [post_parent] => 0
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            [40] => WP_Post Object
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                    [ID] => 35808
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-03-05 12:44:23
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-03-05 12:44:23
                    [post_content] => In this podcast, David Ledesma interviews Professor Jonathan Stern founder of the Natural Gas Research Programme at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies and a Distinguished Research Fellow, to discuss his recent paper  “Challenges to the Future of LNG: decarbonisation, affordability and profitability”, published in October 2019. Natural gas combusted along the LNG value chain equates to 11-13 per cent of the gas produced at the wellhead, which means that LNG has significantly higher emissions than a typical pipeline gas value chain. In order to meet COP21 targets, unabated gas demand in Europe will need to decline in the 2030s (at the latest), while in other regions decline may be delayed until the 2040s. Projects currently taking FID and starting operations around 2024-25, may not have recovered their costs prior to anticipated European demand decline, but should have done so prior to more general global decline. Nevertheless, tightening emissions standards should be very much on the radar of new project developers. The LNG community needs to replace an ‘advocacy’ message, based on the generality of emissions from the combustion of natural gas being lower than other fossil fuels, with certified data on carbon and methane emission data from specific value chains, based on transparent methodologies.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Challenges to the Future of LNG: decarbonisation, affordability and profitability
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => challenges-to-the-future-of-lng-decarbonisation-affordability-and-profitability-2
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:40:04
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:40:04
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                    [ID] => 35550
                    [post_author] => 111
                    [post_date] => 2020-02-24 12:26:30
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2020-02-24 12:26:30
                    [post_content] => This issue of the Forum looks at the medium-term oil supply outlook in the Middle East and North Africa. Middle East and North Africa (MENA) oil producers are expected to increase oil production capacity by 5.7 per cent over the next five years (up to 2025), to 33.5 million barrels per day (mb/d) from the current 31.7 mb/d, this Forum’s survey of regional producers’ upstream planning shows. All growth estimates are predicated on political and fiscal stability and current expansion plans by governments and international oil companies (IOCs) and are therefore subject to change and potential underperformance. But a realistic best-case scenario for the selected countries shows capacity growth led by the UAE, itself able to deliver 0.6 mb/d of growth over the outlook period, while Libya and Kuwait increase by 0.5 mb/d and Iraq by 0.3 mb/d. The growth more than offsets modest capacity declines for some of the smaller regional producers, especially where those countries have chosen to switch their focus away from sustaining crude oil output in favour of gas and unconventional hydrocarbons development. Of course, the impact of sanctions, years of underinvestment due to civil war, poor sectoral management and (where applicable) present and future OPEC production policies will all continue to weigh heavily on growth prospects. The highest potential growth country, Iraq, is characterized by high security and political risk and it is for that reason that it is not the leading growth prospect. This conservative forecast still acknowledges that Baghdad has been able to successfully expand its upstream sector, despite the political tensions between regions and the federal government, and despite years of civil war in the north of the country. In the same way, Libya’s civil war has for periods disrupted the recovery of the oil sector and forced the suspension of oilfield operations and exports. But these interruptions have been the exception rather than the rule and, in a best-case scenario, Libya’s National Oil Corporation should be able to continue to expand production from existing fields over the medium term, restoring pre-2011 capacity levels.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Medium-term Oil Supply Outlook in the Middle East and North Africa - Issue 120
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                    [post_date] => 2020-02-14 10:10:57
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                    [post_content] => In this podcast, Michal Meidan, director of the China Energy Research Programme at OIES discusses the implications of the coronavirus outbreak for China’s oil, gas and chemicals demand, based on two recent publications. While there are still numerous uncertainties regarding the coronavirus outbreak and therefore its impact on energy demand, the travel restrictions and quarantines introduced by the Chinese government to limit the spread of the epidemic have brought the Chinese economy to a virtual standstill. This is inevitably weighing on demand for oil, gas and petrochemicals while also altering trade flows and disrupting supply chains globally. In this podcast we offer a preliminary assessment of the impact and discuss the prospects of a strong stimulus once the outbreak is contained.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - When China sneezes...
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:40:32
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                    [post_date] => 2020-02-12 10:53:15
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                    [post_content] => In this podcast, David Ledesma talks with Peter Findlay, OIES Research Associate, about what makes Canada competitive and uncompetitive for further LNG development.

In the first half of the past decade, Canada was a hotspot for LNG proponents — over 20 liquefaction projects were proposed, primarily off Canada’s West Coast in the province of British Columbia. Supermajors, world-scale North American midstream operators, Asian national oil companies, and Asian consumers had boots on the ground developing integrated projects.

Since that time, investor interest in Canadian projects has waned and only the 13 mtpa LNG Canada plant has been sanctioned, impressively overcoming all the hurdles in Fall 2018; the project includes a yet unsanctioned 13 mtpa expansion option. Other projects faltered and shuttered due to concerns about escalating costs in remote areas, regulatory uncertainty, activist fervor, and tepid government support. Chevron just recently announced their intention to leave their Kitimat LNG project. Meanwhile, despite starting from behind with a generally higher cost of feedgas and much greater shipping distances to Asia, the US Gulf Coast has attracted a deluge of sanctioned (and ready to be sanctioned) LNG investment.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Canadian LNG Competitiveness
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:40:58
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                    [post_date] => 2020-01-08 11:21:38
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                    [post_content] => In this latest OIES podcast David Ledesma discusses the challenges of scaling up renewable gas in Europe with Martin Lambert, who recently co-authored a paper on the subject with Gbemi Oluleye from the Sustainable Gas Institute (SGI) at Imperial College, London. Recent reports have made very ambitious claims of the volume of low- and zero-carbon gas production which could be supplying Europe in 2050, and equally ambitious claims about the extent of cost reductions over the same time period. OIES and SGI compiled a database to track projects which are either in operation or proposed which could contribute to that scale-up pathway, and compared those actual projects with the pathways which would be required to achieve the ambitious targets. While it is too early to be definitive, early signs are not encouraging. Drawing comparisons with the impressive growth of wind and solar power generation and the associated reduction in costs over the past 15 years, renewable gas would need to follow a similar pathway if it is to achieve its targets. OIES and SGI intend to continue to track progress in the next few years to continue the assessment.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - A mountain to climb: Scaling Up Renewable Gas in Europe
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                    [post_status] => publish
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                    [post_name] => a-mountain-to-climb-scaling-up-renewable-gas-in-europe
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:41:32
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                    [post_date] => 2019-12-16 13:36:29
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                    [post_content] => China’s economic growth is slowing due to domestic efforts to curb financial risk and the escalating trade war with the US. Still, energy demand continues to rise and according to China’s largest state-owned oil and gas company, it is unlikely to peak before the mid-2030s. Even if the country’s economic growth moderates over that period, the imperative for Beijing remains to industrialise and urbanise, while also delivering blue skies to its population. How will China meet its ambitious goals of delivering economic growth as well as environmental sustainability? How big of a role will natural gas play in China’s energy transition? How does it view the role of coal and renewables in its energy mix? Has the outlook for energy demand and import dependence changed following the US-China trade war? In this Podcast, David Ledesma and Director of the OIES China Energy Research Programme, Dr Michal Meidan, discuss some of the key trends and challenges China faces.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - How will China meet its ambitious goals of delivering economic growth as well as environmental sustainability?
                    [post_excerpt] => 
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                    [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:42:02
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                    [post_date] => 2019-11-25 11:38:29
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                    [post_content] => In this latest OIES podcast David Ledesma discusses the prospects for the Russian LNG industry with James Henderson, who recently co-authored a paper on the subject with Vitaly Yermakov. Following the successful launch of the Yamal LNG project the Russian government has great plans for the further development of the country’s LNG sector, led primarily by Novatek but also including projects operated by Gazprom and Rosneft. We discuss the chances of rapid expansion being achieved, the challenges that will be faced and the potential for Russia to become one of the “Big Four” LNG exporters by the end of the next decade. We also consider the implications for Russia’s overall gas export strategy as well as the geo-political significance of the opening of the Arctic region.
                    [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Russian LNG: Becoming a Global Force
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                    [post_date] => 2019-11-11 11:51:16
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                    [post_content] => The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OIES) Electricity Programme held its third Annual Electricity Day on 14 June 2019 at St Catherine’s College, Oxford,  for OIES Electricity Programme Sponsors and invited guests. The context for the day was the central role of the electricity sector in the decarbonization of an economy, its links with the other elements (e.g. energy vectors, regulation, infrastructure, and institutions) within a ‘whole energy system’, and whether there are opportunities that the adoption of a holistic approach could bring towards efforts to decarbonize the economy through utilizing synergies and flexibilities across the entire energy system.

The day was organized around three key questions, addressed over three sessions:
  1. What benefits, if any, can ‘integrated’ or ‘whole system’ thinking bring to our approach to particular energy issues, such as the decarbonization of difficult sectors such as heat?
  2. What roles do different modes of storage and different technologies play in realising an integrated, whole system approach to decarbonization?
  3. What are the key policy and commercial challenges of a whole systems approach?
Short presentations to introduce the issues in each session were followed by focused discussion and debate. This document summarizes some of the main messages from the day, organized by session. [post_title] => An Integrated Energy Systems Approach to Decarbonization Policy: Is it the way forward? [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => an-integrated-energy-systems-approach-to-decarbonization-policy-is-it-the-way-forward [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-11-11 12:06:39 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-11-11 12:06:39 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=32838 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [48] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 32762 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-11-08 10:47:02 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-11-08 10:47:02 [post_content] => In this podcast David Ledesma speaks with veteran energy journalist Karel Beckman, who writes a weekly column on gas transitions for Natural Gas World,  about one of the most surprising turnarounds in modern energy history: the decision by the Dutch government to phase out the production of gas within the next few years and consumption by 2050. For sixty years, Dutch households, industry and agriculture relied heavily on domestically produced gas, and Dutch gas exports served as the backbone of the North West European gas system. Government revenues from gas over this period totalled some €417 billion. Karel Beckman explains why the Netherlands are saying goodbye to their gas riches, leaving some 500 bcm in the ground as an enormous stranded asset and what the implications are for the European gas market. He also discusses the lessons that may be drawn from the Dutch “Energiewende” by other countries. Karel’s article “The great Dutch gas transition” can be found here. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - The great Dutch gas transition [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => the-great-dutch-gas-transition-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:43:04 [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:43:04 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=32762 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [49] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 32533 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-10-30 13:48:37 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-10-30 13:48:37 [post_content] => In this podcast, David Ledesma discusses with Mike Fulwood, Senior Research Fellow at the OIES, the short- medium- and long-term outlook for LNG. Imports into Europe surged from late 2018 as supply increased and Asian demand growth stalled. The oversupply looks set to continue through to early 2021 before the market tightens again as export capacity growth slows. However, the recent FIDs on new export projects – five this year with likely more to come in early 2020 – suggests a significant oversupply in the mid-2020s, despite continuing demand growth in Asian markets especially in China. The start-up of the Power of Siberia pipeline from Russia into Northern China will take some of the edge off potential LNG import growth. Longer-term under a Partial Transition scenario, total global gas demand could level off at some 5.4 tcm in the 2040s compared to just under 4 tcm currently. Also discussed is a Rapid Decarbonisation scenario, which includes, at least in some countries, a big role for gas producing hydrogen where CCS can be used. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Short- medium- and long-term outlook for LNG [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => short-medium-and-long-term-outlook-for-lng [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:43:38 [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:43:38 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=32533 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [50] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31924 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-09-30 12:29:41 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-09-30 11:29:41 [post_content] => The decline in indigenous gas production in Europe is an important issue as the region struggles to address its security of supply issues. Understanding the future of gas output is therefore of critical importance.  In this podcast, Marshall Hall discusses with David Ledesma an assessment of the resources still available in UKCS waters and the economics of their production as well as the regulatory issues and government policy that could promote increased output in the future. Marshall also discusses the future of UK gas production and provides important context for the assessment of the UK’s offshore gas potential. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Gas Production from the UK Continental Shelf: An Assessment of Resources, Economics and Regulatory Reform [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => gas-production-from-the-uk-continental-shelf-an-assessment-of-resources-economics-and-regulatory-reform-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:44:14 [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:44:14 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31924 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [51] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31910 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-09-16 09:16:53 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-09-16 08:16:53 [post_content] => The September 2019 issue of the Oxford Energy Forum looks at the uncertainties facing the LNG sector as it transitions from its traditional rigid structure to becoming a fully traded commodity. This change is happening during a period of considerable volume growth in the industry, with LNG supply expected to double between 2016 and 2020. In four sections, the publication examines the uncertainties facing LNG demand and supply, how LNG pricing structures are evolving and the growth in LNG trading, before discussing LNG shipping, plant costs and the evolution of floating liquefaction.  Through twelve articles, this issue has a common theme running through it - one of uncertainty, be it over the level of demand or supply, or the pace of technological advancement along the value chain, and examines potential outcomes and where the LNG transition could end up. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - LNG in Transition: from uncertainty to uncertainty - Issue 119 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-lng-in-transition-from-uncertainty-to-uncertainty-issue-119 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-09-16 12:16:24 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-09-16 11:16:24 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31910 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [52] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31875 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-09-03 12:37:56 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-09-03 11:37:56 [post_content] => Over the next decade and up to 2030, the largest increase in natural gas supply and demand, after China, is projected to take place in the Gulf. This will be very important regionally and globally. In this podcast David Ledesma interviews Mostefa Ouki, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute, to discuss the main drivers of this significant gas supply and demand growth; the internal and external challenges it poses; and, the implications for future regional and global gas balance developments. The podcast highlights also the adverse impact of subsidized domestic gas prices on the sustainable development of new sources of gas supplies; it also reviews the degree of progress made in implementing price reforms and the phasing out of subsidies. A focus on the impact of Gulf politics and an increasing LNG import capacity in the Gulf shows that prospects for the expansion of intra-Gulf gas trade remain extremely limited. Efforts towards an energy transition with a diversified energy mix have already been initiated and are progressing in some key Gulf countries. In the future, the Gulf’s energy scene is unlikely to continue to be largely dominated by natural gas. However, gas will account for a relatively large share of the Gulf’s evolving energy mix. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - The Future of Gas in the Gulf: Continuity and Change [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => the-future-of-gas-in-the-gulf-continuity-and-change [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2020-05-18 06:44:45 [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-05-18 05:44:45 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31875 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [53] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31765 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-07-22 11:50:51 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-07-22 10:50:51 [post_content] => The current issue of the Oxford Energy Forum focuses on economic diversification in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Economic logic favours specialization over diversification — with MENA oil-exporters’ comparative advantage in hydrocarbons, why should they diversify their economies?  And how: in the context of the value chain of the oil sector, or through a different strategy? Uncertain prospects for oil demand particularly due to climate change mitigation give the debate a renewed urgency. In this Podcast, OIES Research Fellows Manal Shehabi and Anupama Sen are in conversation with David Ledesma on such key debates covered in this Forum, including the state of diversification, response to the energy transition, and implications for local labour markets. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Economic Diversification in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-economic-diversification-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-mena-region [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-07-22 11:54:27 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-07-22 10:54:27 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31765 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [54] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31738 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-07-08 10:40:44 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-07-08 09:40:44 [post_content] => The deployment of auctions in electricity systems has been spreading rapidly in many countries across the world to the extent that it may be regarded as normal practice in some contexts – such as the procurement of new conventional generation capacity and renewable energy sources – and that further extensions into other areas – like network expansion – have been proposed. However, the widespread use of auctions of this sort is a relatively recent phenomenon and it raises a number of questions, such as these: Are auctions of this kind a useful market-based tool to complement other methods of resource development? Are they a type of second best – a symptom of the fact that electricity markets themselves are broken and can no longer give appropriate signals? And, have we reached 'peak auction'? In this podcast Anupama Sen is in conversation with Malcolm Keay and David Robinson, Senior Research Fellows on the OIES Electricity Programme, to discuss these issues based on their recent paper: “The Limits of Auctions: reflections on the role of central purchaser auctions for long-term commitments in electricity systems”. ​ [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - The Limit of Auctions [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-the-limit-of-auctions [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-07-08 10:40:44 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-07-08 09:40:44 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31738 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [55] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31686 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-06-21 10:56:53 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-06-21 09:56:53 [post_content] => This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum focuses on Economic Diversification in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).  Diversification efforts in MENA (particularly GCC) countries obviously correlate with international oil prices. Economic logic favours specialization over diversification—individuals and enterprises should concentrate on what they can do best and where they have a comparative advantage. The increasing importance of global value chains for development emphasizes this economic logic, by moving competition from entire sectors to single stages of production and even individual jobs. GCC states hold a comparative advantage in oil and gas production, so why should they not tailor their economies to this sector and approach their own diversification in the context of the value chain of petroleum products? One might argue that countries with large resource reserves and small populations could then simply accept, for the time being, that price shocks will happen periodically. Of course, GCC countries are heterogeneous, with several states now having declining reserves and sizeable populations. In this context, with additional drivers of technological advancement and environmental unsustainability, diversification is more urgent. The fourteen articles in this issue engage comprehensively with the key debates on economic diversification in the MENA countries. Tables for 'Economic diversification and sustainable development of GCC countries - Joerg Beutel   [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Economic Diversification in the MENA - Issue 118 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-economic-diversification-in-the-mena-issue-118 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-06-21 11:07:15 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-06-21 10:07:15 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31686 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [56] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31549 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-05-14 10:48:49 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-05-14 09:48:49 [post_content] => The number of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) worldwide continues to grow though there are major differences between countries both in terms of levels of penetration and underlying drivers.  NGVs have some environmental advantages over petroleum-based fuels – particularly if biomethane is available - and, in many markets, are cheaper. However, the prospects for NGVs in the smaller vehicle sector are diminishing due to the rapid growth in electric vehicles. The growth outlook for heavy vehicles is brighter where electric traction is still less of an option. This podcast discusses these issues, examines the factors behind the range in uptake of NGVs between different countries and provides some indications of future growth prospects. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Natural Gas Vehicles: are they running out of road? [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-natural-gas-vehicles-running-road [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-05-14 10:48:49 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-05-14 09:48:49 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31549 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [57] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31538 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-05-01 10:53:30 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-05-01 09:53:30 [post_content] => In this Podcast Jonathan Stern discusses the third paper in his narrative of on the Future of Gas, entitled “Narratives for Natural Gas in Decarbonising European Energy Markets?”. In conversation with David Ledesma, Professor Stern returns to the theme of decarbonisation in Europe and asserts that the time has now come for the gas industry to develop narratives for its contribution to the achievement of Europe’s carbon reduction targets. Industry has a choice; either accept that gas demand in Europe will decline after 2030, and re-focus on other expanding markets (particularly in Asia) or take a positive step towards developing and implementing decarbonisation narratives, which will convince European politicians that gas can and should maintain its position energy balances post-2030. This will mean that policy-makers will need to change regulatory frameworks to prioritise decarbonization over competition – a major change compared with the past three decades. Corporate strategies which demonstrate how the gas sector will be decarbonized on a commercial scale will need to have reached the implementation phase by the mid-2020s. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Narratives for Natural Gas in Decarbonising European Energy Markets [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-narratives-natural-gas-decarbonising-european-energy-markets [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-05-01 10:53:30 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-05-01 09:53:30 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31538 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [58] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31508 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-04-08 12:07:49 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-04-08 11:07:49 [post_content] => In this latest Oxford Energy Podcast James Henderson, Director of the Natural Gas Programme at OIES is in conversation with Tatiana Mitrova, the Head of the Energy Centre at the Skolkovo Management Centre in Moscow and a Senior Research Fellow at OIES. They discuss a number of issues concerning Russian gas export strategy, including gas transit through Ukraine, the future of Nord Stream 2, the likely competition between Russian exports and LNG in Europe in 2019, the growing domestic rivalry  between Gazprom, Novatek and Rosneft and the imminent start of pipeline exports to China. In addition, they consider the implications of recent management changes at Gazprom and the potential for LNG to become a much more important part of Russia's export strategy. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Russian Gas Export Strategy [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-russian-gas-export-strategy [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-04-08 12:07:49 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-04-08 11:07:49 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31508 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [59] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31475 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-03-18 11:16:50 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-03-18 11:16:50 [post_content] => In this Oxford Energy podcast James Henderson, Director of the Natural Gas Programme at OIES, and Jeff Edwards, General Manager at Shell Energy responsible for global LNG market analysis, discuss Shell's LNG Outlook 2019. The Outlook provides a consensus view of key trends in the LNG industry, and as a result the podcast addresses a wide range of issues from the short-term potential for a supply surplus in 2019 to the need for additional FIDs to ensure adequate supply in the early to mid-2020s. The conversation touches on key growth markets in Asia, in particular China, but also tackles the topic of decarbonisation in Europe and the potential impact on LNG imports. The need for increased flexibility, the impact of the rise in portfolio player activity and the potential for trade in greener forms of gas are also mentioned in a broad-ranging discussion of the LNG sector. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Shell's LNG Outlook 2019 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-shells-lng-outlook-2019 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-04-01 10:51:10 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-04-01 09:51:10 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31475 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [60] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31464 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-03-11 13:00:17 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-03-11 13:00:17 [post_content] => In the power generation sector, the competition between gas and coal, at least for the fossil fuel share, can be intense in many countries.  However, there are some areas of the world where there is little or no coal fired power generation and the principal means of generation is oil and/or hydro. Many of these countries are in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this podcast David Ledesma interviews Mike Fulwood, Senior Research Fellow at the OIES, to discuss his recent paper “Opportunities for Gas in Sub-Saharan Africa”.  The discussion centres on those countries where gas might displace oil in the generation mix and the prospects for gas to contribute to the electrification of the region alongside renewables. The development of new domestic gas reserves in East Africa especially is likely to contribute to growth but there are also a number of countries looking to import LNG as a more economic and greener option than oil. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Opportunities for Gas in Sub-Saharan Africa [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-opportunities-gas-sub-saharan-africa [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-03-11 13:00:17 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-03-11 13:00:17 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31464 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [61] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31431 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-02-20 12:37:25 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-02-20 12:37:25 [post_content] => Energy transition risk is often viewed as a long-term risk, the impacts of which will not be felt for decades to come. However, this view may not be correct because even though completion of the transition might take decades, the increased uncertainty around the transition impacts the energy markets on a much shorter time scale than the transition itself. In this podcast David Ledesma interviews Rob West, Partner Oil & Energy Research, Redburn & Research Associate at the OIES to discuss his recent paper “Energy Transition, Uncertainty, and the Implications of Change in the Risk Preferences of Fossil Fuels Investors” which he jointly authored with Bassam Fattouh, Director of the OIES and Rahmatallah Poudineh, Lead Senior Research Fellow at the OIES. The podcast discusses how the uncertainties associated with the transition have already started to alter the preferences of investors in fossil fuel projects, especially in oil and coal, dis-incentivising long cycle projects leading to companies adopting lower risk operations models and potentially impacting on the valuations of companies. If capital investment levels fall in specific energy sources such as coal and oil today, it could lead to potential energy shortages with resultant price volatility and higher prices in the future which could drive the pace of the energy transition. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Energy Transition, Uncertainty, and the Implications of Change in the Risk Preferences of Fossil Fuels Investors [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-energy-transition-uncertainty-implications-change-risk-preferences-fossil-fuels-investors [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-02-20 12:37:25 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-02-20 12:37:25 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31431 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [62] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31393 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-02-07 10:30:44 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-02-07 10:30:44 [post_content] => The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies held its second workshop on the impact of disruptive change in the transport sector, titled ‘Electricity, Electric Vehicles and Public Policy’. Participants included experts from the electricity, oil, auto, mobility, finance and technology sectors. The workshop focused on investigating the prospects for deep EV penetration. The focus was on specific urban transport modes (light passenger and small freight vehicles) and within the timeframe 2040–50. The workshop recognised the essential role of electricity in enabling deep penetration of EVs, while emphasizing that various public policies, new technologies, and changing social habits are the main drivers of that penetration. The workshop resulted in eight key takeaways. [post_title] => Electricity, Electric Vehicles, and Public Policy: Eight Key Takeaways [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => electricity-electric-vehicles-public-policy-eight-key-takeaways [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-02-08 12:41:04 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-02-08 12:41:04 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31393 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [63] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31379 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-01-29 11:21:07 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-01-29 11:21:07 [post_content] =>

All is not well on Africa's oil and gas scene. Falling global oil prices in recent years have handicapped efforts to turnaround stagnating output in major producers as well as slowed new producers from entering the market. This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum brings together contributors from industry, academia, and civil society to offer multiple views of the bright-spots and challenges facing oil and gas development on the African continent. It focuses on the politics and economics of seasoned producers in sub-Saharan Africa and the birth of new oil and gas producers and up-and-comers, and shows that while old political and security challenges persist, new governance and regional risks are also impacting the development of new oil and gas industries.

[post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Africa's Oil & Gas Scene After the Boom - Issue 117 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-africas-oil-gas-scene-boom-issue-117 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-02-18 11:43:30 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-02-18 11:43:30 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31379 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [64] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31360 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-01-23 12:04:03 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-01-23 12:04:03 [post_content] => In January 2020, the global limit on the sulphur content of exhaust emissions from ships will be lowered, forcing ship owners to choose how to adapt, one option being switching to LNG as a bunker fuel. In this podcast, David Ledesma interviews Jack Sharples to discuss his recently published paper “LNG Supply Chains and the Development of LNG as a Shipping Fuel in North-Eastern Europe” which was recently published by the OIES. The discussion covers the environmental case for LNG, the growth in LNG-fuelled shipping for newbuild vessels, the extent to which an LNG supply chain has been developed to meet the demand for LNG as a bunker fuel, and the role of specific companies as entrepreneurial ‘pathfinders’, before drawing conclusions regarding probable future LNG bunker fuel demand. The discussion also addresses whether the use of LNG as a marine fuel in Northern Europe provides a case study for policy-driven developments that may be replicated in other regions during the coming decade, as ship owners seek regulatory compliance in the context of fleet turnover. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - LNG Supply Chains and the Development of LNG as a Shipping Fuel in Northern Europe [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-lng-supply-chains-development-lng-shipping-fuel-northern-europe [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-01-23 12:04:03 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-01-23 12:04:03 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31360 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [65] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31339 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2019-01-18 13:20:45 [post_date_gmt] => 2019-01-18 13:20:45 [post_content] => During this podcast David Ledesma discusses with Brian Songhurst the key aspects covered in Brian’s recent paper ‘LNG Plant Cost Reduction 2014-2018’. The discussion opens with the reasons for the paper and an overview of how costs have fallen since the highs of the Australian projects to ensure LNG remains a competitive fuel. The challenges faced in preparing the paper are discussed including the separation of upstream and liquefaction costs. Scope and location cost drivers were explored including how costs may look going forward. Trends in project execution strategy and enabling new technology were reviewed that may reduce costs further or as a minimum keep the costs down and avoid a ‘boom and bust’ cycle. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - LNG Plant Cost Reductions 2014–18 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-lng-plant-cost-reductions-2014-18 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-01-18 13:30:06 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-01-18 13:30:06 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31339 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [66] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31298 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-12-07 10:04:25 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-12-07 10:04:25 [post_content] => James Henderson and Trisha Curtis, the CEO and founder of PetroNerds and a visiting fellow at OIES, discuss her forthcoming paper on current trends in the US shale oil industry. Following recent industry concerns that productivity and well performance might be set to undermine the future production outlook, Trisha outlines her view that in fact the shale industry continues to show impressive improvement across a number of metrics and that oil output should continue to rise impressively over the next two to three years at least. She discusses statistical evidence from a number of the major shale plays to reinforce her analysis, as well as providing specific examples of technology improvements that are leading to greater efficiency and enhanced well performance. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Current Trends in the US Shale Oil Industry [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-current-trends-us-shale-oil-industry [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-12-07 10:04:25 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-12-07 10:04:25 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31298 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [67] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31294 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-12-05 11:29:59 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-12-05 11:29:59 [post_content] => In 2017, a gas crisis emerged in Australia’s East Coast gas market. Gas prices had increased rapidly from mid-2016 as the full effect of the three LNG projects starting operations on Curtis Island worked through the gas market, putting domestic energy users under pressure. In March 2017, the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) forecast gas shortages in coming years, potentially leading to blackouts and industrial closures. While gas shortages are no longer forecast, challenges in the East Coast gas market remain. Building on their co-authored paper ‘Prices and crisis: LNG and Australia’s East Coast gas market’ that was published by the OIES in March 2018, David Ledesma and Nikolai Drahos discuss recent developments in Australia and the challenges ahead. They cover the reasons behind the recent crisis, why the world’s second largest LNG exporter may soon become an importer, and parallels with Oman and Egypt. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - LNG and Australia’s East Coast gas market [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-lng-australias-east-coast-gas-market [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-12-05 11:29:59 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-12-05 11:29:59 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31294 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [68] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31273 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-11-20 12:14:18 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-11-20 12:14:18 [post_content] => The ECJ’s recent annulment of a 2014 decision by the European Commission not to raise objections to the aid scheme for the capacity market in the United Kingdom has highlighted some of the challenges faced by governments in implementing centralised capacity mechanisms to respond to shortfalls in the market provision of electricity. There are also other issues around using centralised approaches to provide ‘reliability’ against the context of electricity generation becoming increasingly variable and decentralised.  First, centralized mechanisms highlight the challenges in decision-making by a central authority, reflected in a misalignment between performance outcomes and agency incentives. This is mainly because the incentives of the government are indirect and non-pecuniary. Second, existing capacity mechanisms require the central agency to infer consumer preferences for reliability, something that is very challenging in practice. Third, the existing mechanism allocates the full costs of reliability related-outages to consumers, without providing them with the ability to manage or transfer the risk to those who are able to mitigate them. Fourth, an equitable allocation of costs of procured capacity among consumers can be challenging, especially when retail tariffs have a strong energy component. In this podcast Anupama Sen interviews Rahmat Poudineh, Lead Senior Research Fellow of the OIES Electricity Programme, and Farhad Billimoria, Visiting Research Fellow at the OIES and currently with the Australian Energy Market Operator,  to discuss their recent paper: “Decarbonized Market Design: An Insurance Overlay on Energy Only Electricity Markets”.  The discussion focuses on a new model for electricity market design—the insurer-of-last-resort model—that works as a risk overlay on an existing energy-only market. This model unbundles energy and reliability and incorporates insurance-based risk management concepts with the aims of (1) aligning incentives for centralized decision making and (2) allowing revealed consumer preferences to guide new capacity deployment.  The authors take us through the design of their model, and how to implement it in practice. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Decarbonized Market Design: An Insurance Overlay on Energy Only Electricity Markets [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-decarbonized-market-design-insurance-overlay-energy-electricity-markets [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-11-21 10:17:29 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-11-21 10:17:29 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31273 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [69] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31265 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-11-13 11:28:16 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-11-13 11:28:16 [post_content] => In this latest Oxford Energy podcast James Henderson and Vitaly Yermakov discuss Vitaly’s forthcoming paper on Russia’s gas supply surplus. It has been widely documented that Gazprom has had 100bcm or more spare gas for potential export to Europe, but recent increases in production have reduced this figure. In addition, Vitaly outlines his concern that, although the surplus is available on an annual basis, Gazprom may have much less room for manoeuvre on a seasonal basis, especially on very cold days in winter. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Russia's gas supply surplus [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => russias-gas-supply-surplus [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-11-13 11:32:00 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-11-13 11:32:00 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31265 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [70] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31252 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-10-30 11:39:29 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-10-30 11:39:29 [post_content] => China’s “War against Air Pollution” has seen considerable action from the Chinese government over the last few Chinese five year plans, initially focussing on SO2 and NOX with the later plans addressing particulate pollution. In this fascinating interview, Akira Miyamoto & Chikako Ishiguro, Visiting Authors at the OIES, discuss the measures taken against air pollution in China since the late 2000s, how successful the Chinese actions plans have been to reduce emissions as well as gas demand and pricing in China.  Discussions also include how the rise in Chinese gas and LNG import requirements drove Asian prices so high in the winter of 2017/18 as well as the  future potential for additional LNG and gas pipeline imports in the future. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Outlook for LNG in China towards 2020: War against Air Pollution [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => outlook-lng-china-towards-2020-war-air-pollution [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-11-13 11:32:30 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-11-13 11:32:30 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31252 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [71] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31211 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-10-01 13:11:36 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-10-01 12:11:36 [post_content] => Over the last four years, major and rapid developments have been taking place in Egypt’s natural gas market to reverse the country’s indigenous gas production decline and manage its unabated gas demand growth. In this podcast David Ledesma interviews Mostefa Ouki, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute, to discuss the Egyptian gas market. During the interview Mostefa discusses how key government policy measures helped bring about the discovery and fast-track development of the giant Zohr gas field in 2015 as well as other fields that are expected to result in the doubling of Egypt’s natural gas output by the early 2020s. Egypt, as a major regional energy player, is also aiming at becoming a leader in future regional natural gas projects in the Eastern Mediterranean and is seeking to create a regional gas hub. The podcast also discusses Egypt’s domestic gas market and how, in 2014, the Egyptian government initiated much needed price adjustments to reduce or eliminate gas price subsidies, especially for non-power consumers. Indiscriminate price subsidies had previously fuelled persistent internal gas demand growth during the previous two decades that led to an unsustainable financial situation. A new gas market law, issued in 2017, followed by an implementation decree in 2018, established a gas market regulatory authority that set about a fundamental restructuring of Egypt’s domestic natural gas market.  These have changed the regulatory landscape for natural gas in the country, which should lead to a more sustainable natural gas balance in the longer-term. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Is Egypt undergoing a natural gas renaissance? [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => egypt-undergoing-natural-gas-renaissance [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2019-01-21 15:40:35 [post_modified_gmt] => 2019-01-21 15:40:35 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31211 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [72] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31201 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-09-24 11:37:17 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-09-24 10:37:17 [post_content] => This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum looks at the future of gas from different perspectives. Future development of decarbonised gases – biogas, biomethane and hydrogen – and the consequences for gas networks. The importance of reducing methane emissions from the gas chain. Progress towards reducing the costs of liquefaction and the affordability of gas and LNG imports, particularly in low income countries. The potential for gas to penetrate new markets and specifically the marine transport sector. And the enduring issue of security of supply as a potential constraint on the future of the fuel. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - The Future of Gas - Issue 116 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-future-gas-issue-116 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-10-01 13:03:15 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-10-01 12:03:15 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31201 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [73] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31191 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-09-18 10:16:41 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-09-18 09:16:41 [post_content] => The growing level of interest displayed in LNG as a marine fuel, driven by both environmental restrictions and economic attractiveness, means usage is certain to grow. There is, however, less certainty over the pace and scale of demand growth. In this podcast David Ledesma has a telephone interview with Chris Le Fevre, Senior Visiting  Research Fellow at the OIES, to discuss his recent paper “A review of demand prospects for LNG as a marine fuel”. The discussion centres on the main factors driving LNG demand in the marine sector and the most promising sectors for LNG in global shipping markets. It also discusses the issue of LNG refuelling infrastructure and its impact on market development and the validity of current demand forecasts. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - LNG in marine transport - is it about to become the environmentally-friendly fuel of choice? [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => lng-marine-transport-become-environmentally-friendly-fuel-choice [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-11-13 11:33:31 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-11-13 11:33:31 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31191 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [74] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31181 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-09-10 10:58:50 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-09-10 09:58:50 [post_content] => This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum focuses on the electrification of Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Due to significant expected population growth, the number of Africans without electricity access in 2030 may not fall much from today’s level of about 600 million, which is about 60 per cent of the world’s current population without access to electricity. The articles cover a wide variety of countries and issues, focusing on barriers to meeting electrification objectives and ways to overcome them. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Electrifying Africa - Issue 115 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-electrifying-africa-issue-115 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-10-05 11:16:59 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-10-05 10:16:59 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31181 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [75] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31099 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-06-29 10:45:32 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-06-29 09:45:32 [post_content] => The energy landscape is changing rapidly with far-reaching implications for global energy industries and actors, including oil companies and oil-exporting countries. A key issue facing oil companies and oil-exporting countries is how they should now position themselves and how best to be part of the renewables ‘revolution’. In this podcast David Ledesma interviews Rob West, Head of Global Energy Research at Redburn and Research Associate at the OIES, to discuss his recent paper “The rise of renewables and energy transition: what adaptation strategy for oil companies and oil-exporting countries” which he jointly authored with Bassam Fattouh, Director of the OIES and Rahmatallah Poudineh, Lead Senior Research Fellow at the OIES.  The discussion centres on the falling cost of renewables and how companies and countries should invest in renewables in parallel to hydrocarbons, thus in many cases, freeing up hydrocarbons for export.  It also addresses how companies should ensure that they can attract sufficient capital to meet the energy needs and how investing counter-cyclically can build a company’s portfolio for future growth. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - The rise of renewables and energy transition [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-rise-renewables-energy-transition [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-06-21 13:32:34 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-06-21 12:32:34 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31099 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [76] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31085 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-06-15 11:04:23 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-06-15 10:04:23 [post_content] => The DG COMP investigation into Gazprom’s activities in Central and Eastern Europe has been running since 2011 but has recently come to a conclusion. In this Oxford Energy podcast Jonathan Stern and Katja Yafimava discuss the outcome and the implications both for Gazprom’s business in Europe and for the European gas market as a whole. In particular they assess the pricing methodology that Gazprom has now agreed to adopt, as well as other concessions which the company has made that should help to improve the free flow of gas in Europe but may also improve the competitive position of Russian gas on the continent. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Implications of the DG COMP investigation into Gazprom [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-implications-dg-comp-investigation-gazprom [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-06-15 11:04:23 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-06-15 10:04:23 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31085 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [77] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31069 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-06-04 12:14:10 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-06-04 11:14:10 [post_content] => Oxford Energy Forum 104 (February 2016) looked at the transformation under way in the electricity sector, driven by technological developments and policies on decarbonization. It focused mainly on OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, and on Europe in particular, where there are major challenges, ranging from the practical issues associated with the integration of the new intermittent renewable sources to the wider policy question of whether there is a fundamental conflict between two objectives – decarbonization and liberalization – to which these countries are committed. This issue of the Forum explores related issues, but on a wider canvas – countries across the world, with a diverse range of approaches, many outside the OECD. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Decarbonization and liberalization in the power sector: international perspectives - Issue 114 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-decarbonization-liberalization-power-sector-international-perspectives-issue-114 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-06-04 12:14:10 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-06-04 11:14:10 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31069 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [78] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31037 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-05-11 09:51:59 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-05-11 08:51:59 [post_content] => In this latest Oxford Energy podcast Anupama Sen, a Senior Research Fellow at OIES, is in conversation with James Henderson on the subject of recent changes in Indian upstream taxation and the potential impact on the Indian gas market. The Indian government has set out an ambitious target to reduce energy imports by increasing domestic production, which could also encourage a greater use of gas in the domestic energy economy. To date progress has been slow, and this podcast explores the potential for an acceleration over the next five years driven by investment in domestic production. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Indian upstream taxation and the potential impact on the Indian gas market [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-indian-upstream-taxation-potential-impact-indian-gas-market [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-05-11 09:51:59 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-05-11 08:51:59 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31037 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [79] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31009 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-05-01 11:09:12 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-05-01 10:09:12 [post_content] => This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum is devoted to analysing the role of oil benchmarks, their evolution over time, the challenges facing the most established benchmarks, and the extent to which the current transformations in oil market fundamentals and crude trade flows as well as changes in the regulatory environment are likely to result in the emergence of new benchmarks and new crude oil pricing systems.   [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Oil Benchmarks - Issue 113 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-oil-benchmarks-issue-113 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-05-11 10:12:26 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-05-11 09:12:26 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=31009 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [80] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30989 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-04-18 10:52:21 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-04-18 09:52:21 [post_content] => This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum is devoted to investigating disruptive change in the transport sector. There are three forces shaping or disrupting the road transport sector, namely: autonomous vehicles, transport electrification, and shared mobility. The interactions between the three will determine the future of energy use in transport. The determinants of these three disruptors include factors such as government policies, technological advances, infrastructure, battery costs, material supply chains, consumer behaviour,
and the development of alternative
fuels. The articles in this issue analyse in detail each of the three disruptors and their associated drivers and constraints, presenting a range of views on the future of transport and energy use. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Disruptive Change in the Transport Sector - Issue 112 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-disruptive-change-transport-sector-issue-112 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-04-18 10:52:21 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-04-18 09:52:21 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30989 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [81] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30935 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-03-22 14:21:59 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-03-22 14:21:59 [post_content] => After a volatile 12 months for LNG freight rates, James Henderson, Director of the OIES Gas Programme, and Howard Rogers, the Programmes Chairman, discuss Howard’s recent paper ‘The LNG Shipping Forecast’. Their conversation ranges from a review of the recent trends in LNG shipping rates to a debate about Howard’s new model for shipping costs and his thoughts on the future economic cost of LNG shipping to the European and Asian markets from various key producer locations. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-7 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-03-22 14:21:59 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-03-22 14:21:59 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30935 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [82] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30917 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-03-12 13:44:04 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-03-12 13:44:04 [post_content] => In this Oxford Energy Podcast David Ledesma interviews Anouk Honore, Senior Research Fellow at the OIES, about the current challenges taking place in gas supply from the Dutch Groningen gas field. The interview discusses the recent earthquakes in the Groningen area of the Netherlands and their impact on the gas production caps on Dutch gas supply. Anouk also explores the wider impact of the gas supply cuts on Northern Europe that could effect 15 million residential gas buyers in Belgium, France and Germany. The interview concludes by discussing the impact of reduced gas supply on European Security of Supply. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-6 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-03-12 13:45:05 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-03-12 13:45:05 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30917 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [83] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30848 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-02-05 11:52:50 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-02-05 11:52:50 [post_content] => In this Oxford Energy Podcast David Ledesma interviews James Henderson, the Director of the Gas Programme at OIES, about his recent paper on developments at the Gas Exchange in St. Petersburg. Written in collaboration with Tatiana Mitrova at the Skolkovo Energy Centre in Moscow, the paper looks at the history of gas trading in Russia, the current state of the Exchange in St. Petersburg and the challenges facing SPIMEX as it seeks to develop a fully liquid trading hub. The outcome, it would seem, is fairly binary – either the exchange will catalyse significant change in the Russian gas sector, or it could fade into obscurity. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-5 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-02-05 11:52:50 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-02-05 11:52:50 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30848 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [84] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30824 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-01-17 13:00:42 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-01-17 13:00:42 [post_content] => The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies held a Work​shop – the first of a series – on ‘Disruptive Change in the Transport Sector’ in relation to its impact on energy use in private transport. Participants included experts from the energy, auto, mobility, and technology sectors. This document summarises eight key takeaways from the Workshop discussions:
  1. Despite many government announcements and strong press coverage regarding vehicle electrification, there are alternative technologies which are also important for future mobility.
  2. Level 5 Autonomous Vehicles are still some years away, and will be context-specific.
  3. Cost is one among multiple factors in the scaling up of batteries.
  4. Grid management is critical to electric vehicle (EV) adoption.
  5. Automobile manufacturers will need to restructure their business models around value creation.
  6. Technology diffusion goes beyond cost-competitiveness.
  7. Emerging markets will also adopt EVs, driven primarily by government policy – but outcomes will differ.
  8. Automation, electrification and shared mobility imply very different types of impacts in different combinations.
[post_title] => Disruptive Change in the Transport Sector - Eight Key Takeaways [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => disruptive-change-transport-sector-eight-key-takeaways [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-01-17 13:00:42 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-01-17 13:00:42 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30824 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [85] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30809 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-01-08 10:42:45 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-01-08 10:42:45 [post_content] => Issue 111 of the Oxford Energy Forum focuses on the potential outcomes and impact of US energy policy over the next four years, both for the US domestic economy and for international energy markets. The advent of the Trump Administration has marked a dramatic reversal of previous US energy policy, including on regulation, clean energy, and US commitments under the Paris Agreement. Despite this, the emerging consensus from the issue is that markets, rather than US domestic policy, will continue to play the dominant role in shaping outcomes. More difficult to predict, however, is the potential impact that trade protectionism and an inward-looking foreign policy may have on the functioning of international energy markets.   [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - What's Next for US Energy Policy? - Issue 111 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-next-us-energy-policy-issue-111 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-01-08 10:48:35 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-01-08 10:48:35 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30809 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [86] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30800 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2018-01-03 10:30:45 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-01-03 10:30:45 [post_content] => In this fourth OIES Energy Podcast Jonathan Stern discusses his latest paper on the future of gas in the global energy economy, entitled “Challenges to the Future of Gas: unburnable or unaffordable?”. In conversation with David Ledesma, Professor Stern reviews his hypothesis that while the gas industry needs to have a decarbonisation strategy if it is to prosper in the long term in Europe, in many other parts of the world the issue is price. In particular, in non-OECD countries gas is viewed as an expensive energy option, and although it can help to alleviate air quality problems in some cities, it needs to be affordable if demand is to grow in line with optimistic forecasts. The implication for LNG producers is that they must get costs down if a new wave of projects is to be developed. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-4 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-01-03 10:32:34 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-01-03 10:32:34 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30800 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [87] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30774 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2017-12-12 12:16:11 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-12-12 12:16:11 [post_content] => Tricia Curtis, a research associate at OIES and founder of consultancy Petronerds, discusses the recent trends in US shale oil production, based on her recent paper for OIES. Tricia reviews the key basins for shale oil production and assesses the impact of technological developments on the productivity of new wells. She reviews the potential for continued advances across a number of drilling, completion and production activities, and discusses the breakeven oil price in the various shale plays. She also assesses the key challenges ahead for the US shale industry and outlines her thoughts on the likely production levels that can be achieved over the next 2-3 years. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-3 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-12-13 14:36:33 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-12-13 14:36:33 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30774 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [88] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30741 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2017-11-21 10:59:17 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-11-21 10:59:17 [post_content] => Michal Meidan, a research associate at OIES and leading China analyst at Energy Aspects, discusses the current state of the Chinese gas market and the prospects for future growth. The recent rebound in LNG demand in China and the renewed government focus on air quality and the environment has encouraged a more positive view of the future for gas in the Chinese energy economy. Michal discusses the reasons for the upturn in gas demand, the impact of government policy on coal-to-gas switching, the prospects for indigenous Chinese gas production and the balance of Chinese gas exports. She also assesses the need for price and institutional reform and the likelihood of China achieving its targets for gas demand in 2020 and 2030. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-12-13 14:36:59 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-12-13 14:36:59 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30741 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [89] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30701 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2017-10-26 14:24:20 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-10-26 13:24:20 [post_content] => In the first of our OIES Energy Podcast series David Ledesma interviews Tatiana Mitrova, an OIES Visiting Research Fellow, on the topic of Russian Gas. They discuss Gazprom’s export strategy, the current state of the domestic market in Russia, the politics of Russian gas in Europe and the potential impact of Russian gas on the global energy market. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-12-12 12:31:40 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-12-12 12:31:40 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30701 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [90] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30650 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2017-09-25 11:10:41 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-09-25 10:10:41 [post_content] => The expectation of an oversupplied gas market up to the mid-2020s has put natural gas demand back on the radar. This edition of the Oxford Energy Forum is dedicated to gas demand outlook in various regions of the world, with the starting point being the open question on whether, when, where and, eventually, at what price there will be sufficient demand to absorb the coming LNG wave. The first ten articles investigate the challenges and expectations for future gas demand in the main importing regions: Europe, Asia and South-East Asia, the MENA region and South America. Because it is difficult to draw common conclusions even at the regional level for diverse group of counties, authors provide separate views on key markets and there are three articles that specifically focus on Turkey, China and India. Following on from that, two articles consider the potential for new gas and LNG markets, with a focus on the particular case of the Ivory Coast and the role of FSRUs. The subsequent article focuses on the prospects for gas as a transport fuel as scarcely a day goes by without an announcement of new investments in shipping or refuelling facilities, or the conclusion of a cooperation agreement. Last but not least, the final article explores the relationship between coal and gas and what could be the key catalyst for coal-to-gas switching in the various regions. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Searching for Natural Gas Demand in the Next Decade - Issue 110 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-searching-natural-gas-demand-next-decade-issue-110 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-09-25 11:10:41 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-09-25 10:10:41 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30650 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [91] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30573 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2017-08-15 10:02:40 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-08-15 09:02:40 [post_content] => This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum is devoted to Mexico’s recent energy sector reforms. The reforms were designed to open up the country’s energy sector to international and local private players, inject competition, provide new partnering opportunities for PEMEX, establish new markets domestically, and potentially strengthen Mexico as a key link between the American and international markets for energy trade. However, these landmark reforms – which have significant implications for the country’s overall economy and the role of Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state oil company that hitherto dominated its energy sector – are also not entirely without wider economic implications which need to be carefully considered as the country moves forward. This issue presents a spectrum of views on energy sector reforms in a country that continues to be important to both the regional and international energy systems.   [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Mexican Energy Reforms - Issue 109 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-mexican-energy-reforms-issue-109 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-08-15 10:02:40 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-08-15 09:02:40 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30573 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [92] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30440 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2017-06-08 11:08:51 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-06-08 10:08:51 [post_content] => This Insight published by the Emirates Diplomatic Academy (EDA) is the outcome of a joint workshop between the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OIES) and EDA and draws on ideas and data presented by Dr Bassam Fattouh during the workshop. The insight examines how global energy markets are evolving, what this could mean for Gulf oil exporters, and how these countries could respond. The workshop identified ten structural trends that are expected to be largely responsible for shaping global energy markets over the next two decades and analysing their implication on Gulf exporters. These are: 
Acceleration of shift in oil demand away from the OECD to non-OECD; Shifts in oil demand patterns within non-OECD Asia; Continuing role of US shale oil as a ‘new’, nimble source of supply; Shift in oil trade flows from ‘East to East’ and from ‘West to East’; Possibility of the US/North America becoming a net oil and natural gas exporter; Changing relations within OPEC countries; 
Growing relevance of Russia-OPEC relations; 
Changing nature of geopolitical risks affecting the oil market; 
Shift in oil market perceptions from oil scarcity to oil abundance; and 
high uncertainty regarding the impact of technological developments and climate change policies on future oil demand.   [post_title] => Global Trends in Oil and Energy: Implications for the GCC and Foreign Policy Responses [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => global-trends-oil-energy-implications-gcc-foreign-policy-responses [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-06-08 11:08:51 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-06-08 10:08:51 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30440 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [93] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30291 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2017-04-19 10:23:13 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-04-19 09:23:13 [post_content] => It has been nearly three years since the collapse in global oil prices and there have been mixed outcomes for countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). While some countries (which had already initiated reforms) benefited from the low oil price, in others it triggered a spate of pricing reforms following fiscal crises. Although there is now an unequivocal consensus over the necessity for these reforms, their manner and pace of implementation thus far has evoked fresh debates over their long-term sustainability and ensuing impact on the region’s rigid economic and social structures. This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum is devoted to exploring the overarching questions and assessing country-specific experience related to energy pricing reforms in the MENA. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum – MENA Energy Pricing Reforms – Issue 108 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-mena-energy-pricing-reforms-issue-108 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-04-19 10:23:13 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-19 09:23:13 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30291 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [94] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 30021 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2017-01-16 13:31:43 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-01-16 13:31:43 [post_content] => It is well known that Russia is heavily dependent on its energy sector, from both an economic and a political perspective. As a result, the fall in the oil price over the past two years and the dramatic changes taking place in the global gas market are having significant consequences for both the Kremlin and Russia’s domestic energy companies. However, instead of reviewing the increased risks for Russia from the change in global energy markets, this edition of the Oxford Energy Forum discusses how Russia has started to adapt its policies and commercial strategies in a number of different areas. Some of the new strategies appear very positive, while others carry inherent risks, but all show how the world’s largest producer of hydrocarbons is being forced to respond politically and commercially to the shock of lower commodity prices. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum – Russian energy issues in a volatile environment – Issue 107 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-russian-energy-issues-volatile-environment-issue-107 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-01-16 13:32:27 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-01-16 13:32:27 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=30021 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [95] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 29701 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2016-10-07 09:51:40 [post_date_gmt] => 2016-10-07 08:51:40 [post_content] => Authors of the new OIES publication 'LNG Markets in Transition: The Great Reconfiguration',  share insights and conclusions from the book at a recent launch event hosted by CSIS in Washington, DC. [post_title] => LNG Markets in Transition: The Great Reconfiguration - launch event [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => lng-markets-transition-launch [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-10-07 09:55:23 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-10-07 08:55:23 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=29701 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [96] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 29641 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2016-09-19 13:13:02 [post_date_gmt] => 2016-09-19 12:13:02 [post_content] => The LNG market has seen dramatic shifts in its underlying fundamentals since the mid 2000s. The roller-coaster of pricing, the rise of LNG spot and short term trading and the emergence of the US as a source of ‘destination flexible’ supply are just some of the many dimensions of the industry which appear in a state of flux, not least due to the imminent arrival of new substantial supply from projects in Australia and the US. In September 2016 OIES and KAPSARC published ‘LNG Markets in Transition – The Great Reconfiguration’. This Issue of the Oxford Energy Forum comprises articles from several of the book chapter authors and the editor who provide summaries of their key findings. In summing up, Anne-Sophie Corbeau, the book’s editor, argues that the LNG world is undergoing a `great reconfiguration’, in terms of volume expansion and changes in commercial models including the dominance of long term contracts. She suggests that aside from partial extensions of existing contracts, as LNG markets move towards greater commoditisation, there will be no turning back to the traditional long term contract model. Whether new projects proceed without traditional long-term contracts will depend on lenders accepting that short term LNG trade will become the norm, with reliable spot price benchmarks and lower LNG costs supporting project economics. This should enhance the role of LNG in the development of flexible international gas trade, and hence make a major contribution to the increasing globalisation of the gas business. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - LNG Markets: the great reconfiguration - Issue 106 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-106 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-09-19 13:13:02 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-09-19 12:13:02 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=29641 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [97] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 29345 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2016-06-28 11:24:34 [post_date_gmt] => 2016-06-28 10:24:34 [post_content] => This issue of Oxford Energy Forum (OEF) looks at the Paris Agreement (which came out of COP21 – the 21st Conference of Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) along with its implications for individual energy sources, for particular countries and regions, and for specific policy areas. Perhaps most striking is the range of views contained in the articles here and the disparity of impacts as between different sources, countries, and policy areas. Whereas in the last issue of OEF (where the focus was on electricity), there was much emphasis on the fundamental changes the industry is undergoing as a result of the rapid growth of low-carbon sources, and the similarity of the challenges in different parts of the world, the emphasis in this issue is on diversity. While some areas are seeing major changes and challenges, others are continuing with something little different from business-as-usual. The same applies to fuels; electricity is in the front line in most countries in relation to climate change policy, but for the oil and gas industries the challenges seem to be more to do with the medium- to longer-term. Perhaps as a result, investment markets seem distinctly uninterested in either the challenges or the opportunities offered by the low-carbon transition. Is this just realism or dangerous complacency about future developments? [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 105 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-105 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-06-28 11:24:34 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-06-28 10:24:34 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=29345 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [98] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 29237 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2016-03-21 12:07:31 [post_date_gmt] => 2016-03-21 12:07:31 [post_content] => Transformation of the Electricity Sector: Technology, Policy and Business Models Electricity is in ferment – an unusual state for an industry which has traditionally been used to enjoying the stability of long term assets, steadily growing demand and secure revenues.  But these secure foundations are now coming into question as the industry faces major technological, economic and institutional change.  Perhaps most visible are the developments in electricity generation – the growing penetration of intermittent renewable generation, driven both by technological advances and by the policy commitment to decarbonisation.  Significant changes are also taking place elsewhere in the system, with the rapid development of information and control technology, which is opening the way for new approaches to system management and more flexible demand.  It is likely that we are only seeing the beginnings of these changes – they raise wider questions about the very nature of the industry’s product and its relationship with its customers. The technological developments have been accompanied by major policy and economic changes, notably: falling electricity demand, greater use of on-site generation leading to lower network income, governments rather than markets driving investment in both renewable and fossil generation.  However, the institutional frameworks surrounding the industry are struggling to keep up. For about two decades after 1990, governments across the world focused on liberalisation and the extension of market forces; now there is a new emphasis on decarbonisation, with governments rather than markets driving investment decisions.  The institutional frameworks surrounding the industry are struggling to keep up.  Governments have not yet worked out whether decarbonisation and liberalisation can go hand in hand or whether there is a fundamental conflict.  Markets have also been slow to adapt to the new era – the industry has traditionally relied on marginal cost (kWh) pricing, although a large proportion of its costs have always been fixed. With a growing penetration of zero marginal cost plants, the marginal cost approach looks increasingly outdated, whether at wholesale or retail level.  Regulation too needs to respond to the changes, including the increasing decentralisation of the system.  New control and coordination methods may be required to manage the rapid growth of intermittent generation, particularly wind.   Indeed the whole basis of the industry’s workings are coming into question: what ultimately are its products? How should it price them? What business models should the industry be developing? What are its resources and how do storage and demand response fit in? [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 104 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-104 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-03-21 12:07:31 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-03-21 12:07:31 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=29237 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [99] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 29069 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2015-12-16 13:49:36 [post_date_gmt] => 2015-12-16 13:49:36 [post_content] => Energy trading in Europe is on the verge of a fundamental transformation. The implementation of a host of new regulations: the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR),
the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID), the Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation (MiFIR), the Market Abuse Regulation (MAR), the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR), and the Capital Requirements Directive IV (CRD IV) 
will have profound implications for how international oil companies, trading houses, brokerage firms, investment banks, price-reporting agencies,
and futures exchanges do business. While there is a consensus among the contributors to this Forum that the new regulations will change the landscape by increasing the complexity of the trading business and the cost of compliance, as well as increasing reporting and capital requirements, there remains much uncertainty as
to whether these new regulations will achieve their intended objectives. Of particular concern are the unintended consequences of some of these regulations in terms of: reducing market liquidity, reducing the number of market players, the risks of regulatory arbitrage, and increasing the cost of hedging. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Special Issue, 103 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-special-issue-103 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-02-26 14:20:16 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-26 14:20:16 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/?post_type=publications&p=29069 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [100] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 29049 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2015-11-23 13:30:36 [post_date_gmt] => 2015-11-23 13:30:36 [post_content] => While the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) continues to play a pivotal role as the world’s supplier of oil and, to a lesser extent gas, the collapse in global oil prices since mid-2014 has refocused the debate on the region’s ability to use oil revenues to build sustainable and diversified economies that can one day function without oil, or at least reduce their heavy dependence on the export of only a single commodity. The Paris Climate Conference in December 2015 will provide an opportunity to the global community, including MENA countries, to contribute new vision and perspectives to the debate, and to engage proactively in leading regional green policy efforts. In this issue of the Oxford Energy Forum, we ask the question directly: can the MENA economies use this time to initiate the switch from fossil fuels to renewables, from wasteful energy consumption towards energy efficiency? Can the region re-invent itself? Can it ‘grow green’? [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 102 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-102 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-03-16 11:55:58 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-03-16 11:55:58 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/?post_type=publications&p=29049 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [101] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27321 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2015-09-28 10:02:07 [post_date_gmt] => 2015-09-28 09:02:07 [post_content] => This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum is dedicated to gas pricing. A mild 2013/14 winter in Europe and parts of Asia and a slowing of demand growth for LNG saw European hub prices and LNG spot prices begin to fall through the summer of 2014. The collapse of the oil price in late 2014 resulted in a lagged reduction in long-term contract prices (LNG and pipeline gas) to levels below $10/MMBtu in Europe and Asia. These events followed a period from 2011 to 2013 in which regional gas reference prices in the USA, Europe, and Asia appeared to be held within stable 'corridors' at levels which incentivized the progression of a long list of new LNG projects in North America, East Africa, Australia, and Russia. Many of these will likely be 'on hold' pending indications of a more supportive future price environment, but some 150 bcm/year of new LNG supply from the USA and Australia will have achieved start-up by 2020; this will add further pressure on prices and stimulate inter-regional arbitrage. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 101 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-101 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2015-09-28 10:02:07 [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-09-28 09:02:07 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oxford-energy-forum-issue-101/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [102] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27338 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2015-06-08 10:14:28 [post_date_gmt] => 2015-06-08 09:14:28 [post_content] => This special issue of the Forum is dedicated to Robert Mabro who founded the Oxford Energy Policy Club in 1976, the Oxford Energy Seminar in 1979, and the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies in 1982. In this issue of the Oxford Energy Forum, Robert’s colleagues and friends reflect on the man and his work and how his extraordinary contribution to the field has enriched our understanding of energy markets, the behaviour of the various players, the dynamics within OPEC, the consumer-producer dialogue, and the interaction between governments and oil companies and how his deep insights and intellectually integrity continue to shape and influence thinking. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 100 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-100 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-08-04 14:01:26 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-08-04 13:01:26 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oxford-energy-forum-issue-100/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [103] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27357 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2015-03-26 15:18:30 [post_date_gmt] => 2015-03-26 15:18:30 [post_content] => Released today by the Center on Global Energy Policy The US Shale Gas Revolution and its Impact on Qatar's Position in Gas Markets is a collaborative study between CGEP, Columbia and the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies that examines how Qatar may be impacted by major changes to the global LNG market. The expansion of Qatar's LNG industry in the latter half of the 2010s, unprecedented in its scale and pace, established the country as the world’s largest LNG supplier. Such a move was made possible due to a sound business strategy of diversified sales and the disciplined execution of multiple projects. In addition to supporting its LNG business, Qatar's offshore North Field also underpinned the rapid growth of a domestic industrial sector and limited regional pipeline exports. LNG is a dynamic sector however and Qatar has many new challenges to address, including the rise of competing new supplies from Australia, the US, East Africa, Canada and Russia, uncertainty about the pace of Asian LNG demand and a desire on the part of LNG importers to move away from oil-indexation as the price formation mechanism for long term LNG contracts. With its moratorium on new LNG projects expected to remain in place for the medium term at least, Qatar will seek to adapt its sales portfolio strategy in order to optimise its revenues in a more competitive market. This said, Qatar has a number of comparative advantages. Its geographic location enables it to access Asian and European markets without undue transport cost penalties, co-production of condensate and NGLs from the North field adds significant robustness to the economics of existing and future new projects and its remaining undeveloped reserves available for LNG notably exceed those of its competitors. In addition Qatar’s proven track record on project implementation and its low cost location would also allow it to deter competition, should it announce an intention to resume an expansion of capacity. Although the recent falls in oil and regional gas prices will impact Qatar's hydrocarbon revenues, the country has the financial resilience to weather these storms and to remain a powerful force in the LNG business for the foreseeable future. Full Report [post_title] => The US Shale Gas Revolution and its Impact on Qatar's Position in Gas Markets [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => the-us-shale-gas-revolution-and-its-impact-on-qatars-position-in-gas-markets [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-02-29 16:06:26 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-29 16:06:26 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/the-us-shale-gas-revolution-and-its-impact-on-qatars-position-in-gas-markets/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [104] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27362 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2015-03-09 14:55:46 [post_date_gmt] => 2015-03-09 14:55:46 [post_content] => This issue of the Oxford Energy Forum is dedicated to Energy in India. Set against the landscape of an uncertain international energy market and a potential slowing of China’s economic growth, the Indian economy stands poised as a hopeful prospect (the IMF forecasts growth of 6.3 per cent in 2015) in an otherwise unsteady global economic recovery. However, India’s new government, elected last May, faces significant challenges in implementing energy reforms, given the complex intertwining of physical (supply), fiscal, poverty and environmental issues. This issue draws together key debates on Indian energy. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 99 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-99 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2015-03-09 14:55:46 [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-03-09 14:55:46 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oxford-energy-forum-issue-99/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [105] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27381 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2015-01-12 11:32:31 [post_date_gmt] => 2015-01-12 11:32:31 [post_content] => Latin America is once again on the radar of the international and regional oil and gas industry, service companies, and policy makers. Secular changes in the petroleum investment risk profile of major oil and gas hubs such as Russia, North Africa, West Africa, and the Middle East, limited access to acreage in the traditional producing areas, as well as the lack of new exploration successes outside the emerging provinces such as East Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean, among others, have made Latin America an interesting place to re-visit. These circumstances have coincided with the North American unconventional boom and Mexico’s landmark reform that brought the Americas back onto the industry map again. This issue of the Forum covers several regional themes that will shed some light on the challenges and opportunities for the region, as well as some specific country themes. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 98 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-98 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2015-01-12 11:32:31 [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-01-12 11:32:31 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oxford-energy-forum-issue-98/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [106] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27399 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2014-09-22 12:19:20 [post_date_gmt] => 2014-09-22 11:19:20 [post_content] => Energy in Russia, the subject of this issue of the Oxford Energy Forum, has this year returned to the forefront of debates among academics, policy makers, and those in the industry. Politics, never far from these debates, is a factor: as a result of events in Ukraine, the tension between Russia and the western powers has risen to its highest level since the Cold War. The editors have endeavoured to provide commentary on the political and economic context of energy developments, while also inviting recognized specialists to comment on the host of issues - from long-term upstream oil issues to Russia's domestic electricity market - that are sometimes neglected by the big-picture analysts. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 97 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-97 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2014-09-22 12:19:20 [post_modified_gmt] => 2014-09-22 11:19:20 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oxford-energy-forum-issue-97/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [107] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27415 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2014-06-16 10:20:56 [post_date_gmt] => 2014-06-16 09:20:56 [post_content] => Oil has defined the modern-day development of the Gulf region in a
way seen in no other place in the world; together, the six members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, are home to around a third of known global reserves of oil, and nearly a quarter of its natural gas. Saudi Arabia remains the world’s most important producer
 of conventional oil, and continues to hold the majority of the world’s spare capacity, while Qatar has become the world’s largest producer of liquefied natural gas. This reflects the GCC states’ continuing pivotal role on global energy markets as a key centre of world energy supply. The fast-track economic growth and development experienced by the GCC economies since the mid-20th century in particular, however, has also left its toll on the region’s energy profile. No longer just global suppliers of energy, the GCC states have become a key centre of energy demand growth in their own right, accounting to a large extent for projections such as those by the IEA that see the Middle East alongside Asia as the world’s future energy demand growth centres well into the 2030s. This issue of OEF reflects on the variety of options and challenges faced by the GCC states more than a decade into the new millennium, and offers perspectives on future policy choices inside one of the world’s most important group of energy producers. [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 96 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-96 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2014-06-16 10:20:56 [post_modified_gmt] => 2014-06-16 09:20:56 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oxford-energy-forum-issue-96/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [108] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27420 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2014-04-14 15:00:48 [post_date_gmt] => 2014-04-14 14:00:48 [post_content] => This issue of the Forum is dedicated to developments in Chinese energy [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 95 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-95 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2014-04-14 15:00:48 [post_modified_gmt] => 2014-04-14 14:00:48 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oxford-energy-forum-issue-95/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [109] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27446 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2014-01-14 12:04:40 [post_date_gmt] => 2014-01-14 12:04:40 [post_content] => Oil Benchmarks [post_title] => Oxford Energy Forum - Issue, 94 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-forum-issue-94 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2014-01-14 12:04:40 [post_modified_gmt] => 2014-01-14 12:04:40 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oxford-energy-forum-issue-94/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [110] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27462 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2013-10-10 15:12:31 [post_date_gmt] => 2013-10-10 14:12:31 [post_content] => East Mediterranean Gas - opportunities and challenges [post_title] => Issue 93, August 2013 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-93-august-2013 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2013-10-10 15:12:31 [post_modified_gmt] => 2013-10-10 14:12:31 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-93-august-2013/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [111] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27469 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2013-07-29 14:14:02 [post_date_gmt] => 2013-07-29 13:14:02 [post_content] => The Changing Refining Sector [post_title] => Issue 92, May 2013 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-92-may-2013 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2013-07-29 14:14:02 [post_modified_gmt] => 2013-07-29 13:14:02 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-92-may-2013/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [112] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27486 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2013-05-03 12:58:31 [post_date_gmt] => 2013-05-03 11:58:31 [post_content] => Developments in US Energy [post_title] => Issue 91, February 2013 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-91-february-2013 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2013-05-03 12:58:31 [post_modified_gmt] => 2013-05-03 11:58:31 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-91-february-2013/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [113] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27500 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2013-01-14 11:44:12 [post_date_gmt] => 2013-01-14 11:44:12 [post_content] => Africa's Energy Outlook [post_title] => OEF, Issue 90, November 2012 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oef-issue-90-november-2012 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2013-01-14 11:44:12 [post_modified_gmt] => 2013-01-14 11:44:12 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oef-issue-90-november-2012/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [114] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27513 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2012-10-17 12:18:39 [post_date_gmt] => 2012-10-17 11:18:39 [post_content] => Natural Gas Demand and Supply [post_title] => Issue 89, August 2012 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-89-august-2012 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2012-10-17 12:18:39 [post_modified_gmt] => 2012-10-17 11:18:39 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-89-august-2012/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [115] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28119 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2012-10-17 12:18:39 [post_date_gmt] => 2012-10-17 11:18:39 [post_content] => Natural Gas Demand and Supply [post_title] => Issue 89, August 2012 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-89-august-2012-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2012-10-17 12:18:39 [post_modified_gmt] => 2012-10-17 11:18:39 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-89-august-2012-2/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [116] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28150 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2012-06-12 14:50:38 [post_date_gmt] => 2012-06-12 13:50:38 [post_content] => The Controvery over Energy Subsidies [post_title] => Issue 88, May 2012 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-88-may-2012-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2012-06-12 14:50:38 [post_modified_gmt] => 2012-06-12 13:50:38 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-88-may-2012-2/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [117] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28182 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2012-03-27 15:36:44 [post_date_gmt] => 2012-03-27 14:36:44 [post_content] => Oil Price Benchmarks in International Trade by Jorge Montepeque, Liz Bossley, Christophe Barret, Peter Stewart, Mike Davis, Bassam Fattouh, Amrita Sen, Peter Caddy, Giacomo Luciani, Salvatore Carollo [post_title] => Issue 87, February 2012 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-87-february-2012-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2012-03-27 15:36:44 [post_modified_gmt] => 2012-03-27 14:36:44 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-87-february-2012-2/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [118] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27550 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2012-01-31 11:14:25 [post_date_gmt] => 2012-01-31 11:14:25 [post_content] => Technological Challenges and Developments by Ivan Sandrea, David Bamford, Petrobras and Boston Consulting Group, Michelle Michot Foss, Trisha Curtis, Samer Ashgar, Robert G. Skinner, Franz B. Ehrhardt, Tara Shirvani and Oliver R. Inderwildi. [post_title] => Issue 86, November 2011 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-86-november-2011 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2012-01-31 11:14:25 [post_modified_gmt] => 2012-01-31 11:14:25 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-86-november-2011/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [119] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28203 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2011-12-07 12:08:56 [post_date_gmt] => 2011-12-07 12:08:56 [post_content] => Several members of OIES contributed articles to, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Volume 27, Issue 1, Spring 2011, edited by Christopher Allsopp and Bassam Fattouh. Each issue concentrates on a current theme in economic policy, with a balance between macro- and microeconomics, giving a valuable appraisal of economic policies worldwide. Volume 27, Issue 1, focuses on Oil and International Energy Markets. To access the articles please click on the links below:     [post_title] => Oil and International Energy Markets [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oil-and-international-energy-markets-4 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-02-26 16:35:27 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-26 16:35:27 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/oil-and-international-energy-markets-4/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [120] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28207 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2011-10-04 11:40:55 [post_date_gmt] => 2011-10-04 10:40:55 [post_content] => Nuclear Energy post Fuklushima Malcolm Grimston Gordon Mackerron Malcolm Keay Interconnecting the GCC States Laura El-Katiri Oil and Gas Resources Bassam Fattouh James Henderson Juan Carlos Boue [post_title] => Issue 85, August 2011 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-85-august-2011-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2011-10-04 11:40:55 [post_modified_gmt] => 2011-10-04 10:40:55 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-85-august-2011-2/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [121] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27583 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2011-05-18 10:46:57 [post_date_gmt] => 2011-05-18 09:46:57 [post_content] => Political Events in the Middle East and their Impact on Energy Robert Mabro, Helima L. Croft and Amrita Sen.Hakim Darbouche. John Hamilton and Emma Murphy WTI and Brent Benchmarks Edward L. Morse, Bob Levin Twenty Years of Producer–Consumer Dialogue Bassam Fattouh and Coby van der Linde [post_title] => Issue 84, May 2011 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-84-may-2011 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2011-05-18 10:46:57 [post_modified_gmt] => 2011-05-18 09:46:57 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-84-may-2011/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [122] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28248 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2010-08-31 13:48:46 [post_date_gmt] => 2010-08-31 12:48:46 [post_content] => The Uproar Surrounding Petroleum Contract Renegotiations George Kahale, III   An Anatomy of the Oil Pricing Regime Bassam Fattouh   The Balance between Long- and Short-term LNG Suppliesin the European Gas Industry Axel M Wietfeld   Gas-to-power in North Africa: Implications for gas exports and supply Hakim Darbouche [post_title] => Issue 82, August 2010 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-82-august-2010-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2010-08-31 13:48:46 [post_modified_gmt] => 2010-08-31 12:48:46 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-82-august-2010-2/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [123] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28253 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2010-05-17 10:25:11 [post_date_gmt] => 2010-05-17 09:25:11 [post_content] => Energy Poverty Robert Bacon, Suleiman J. Al-Herbish The Credit Crunch and International Energy Markets Christopher Allsopp Gas Matters Stephen Bell, Armelle Lecarpentier Reforming UK Electricity Markets John Rhys [post_title] => Issue 81 May 2010 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-81-may-2010-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2010-05-17 10:25:11 [post_modified_gmt] => 2010-05-17 09:25:11 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-81-may-2010-2/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [124] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28263 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2010-02-17 10:23:06 [post_date_gmt] => 2010-02-17 10:23:06 [post_content] => Copenhagen: A Partial or a Significant Success? Benito Müller, Marianne Haug Global Oil Demand Dynamics: Rebalancing the Debate Bassam Fattouh On Oil Peak or Peaks? Robert Mabro Oil Price and the Animal Spirits: Implications for the Oil Industry Leadership Edgar Jones Does the Electric Car have a Future? David Robinson, François Badin [post_title] => Issue 80 February 2010 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-80-february-2010-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2010-02-17 10:23:06 [post_modified_gmt] => 2010-02-17 10:23:06 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-80-february-2010-2/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [125] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27629 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2009-11-17 10:21:04 [post_date_gmt] => 2009-11-17 10:21:04 [post_content] => Oil Price Volatility Bassam Fattouh and Paul Segal, Robert Mabro Problems of Oil Production Lars Erik Aamot, Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff European Natural Gas Prices Howard Rogers Solar Energy Malcolm Keay, Till Stenzel [post_title] => Issue 79 November 2009 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-79-november-2009 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2009-11-17 10:21:04 [post_modified_gmt] => 2009-11-17 10:21:04 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-79-november-2009/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [126] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27639 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2009-08-17 10:19:15 [post_date_gmt] => 2009-08-17 09:19:15 [post_content] => Obama’s Energy Policy Joseph A. Stanislaw, Richard Matzke, David Robinson How Resource Revenues can Halve Global Poverty Paul Segal Will a Crude Oil Price Band Stabilise the Market? Bassam Fattouh Wind Power John Constable and Hideaki Aoyama, Malcolm Keay [post_title] => Issue 78 August 2009 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-78-august-2009 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2009-08-17 10:19:15 [post_modified_gmt] => 2009-08-17 09:19:15 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-78-august-2009/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [127] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28289 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2009-05-17 10:17:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2009-05-17 09:17:00 [post_content] => The Effects of Low Prices on Oil and Gas Investments Edward L. Morse, Pedro Haas and Greg Terzian, Ali Aissaoui The Oil Price Crisis of 1998-9 and 2008-9 Robert Mabro Energy RD&D: a much needed clean tech stimulus Marianne Haug Venezuelan Oil Production Data Juan Carlos Boué [post_title] => Issue 77 May 2009 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-77-may-2009-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2009-05-17 10:17:00 [post_modified_gmt] => 2009-05-17 09:17:00 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-77-may-2009-2/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [128] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27653 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2009-02-17 10:15:33 [post_date_gmt] => 2009-02-17 10:15:33 [post_content] => European Union Energy Policy David Buchan, Giacomo Luciani Features of Recent Oil Developments Paul Horsnell and Costanza Jacazio, Ivan Sandrea, Bassam Fattouh LNG Trading: Overview and Challenges Alex Wietfeld and Niels Fenzl [post_title] => Issue 76 February 2009 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-76-february-2009 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2009-02-17 10:15:33 [post_modified_gmt] => 2009-02-17 10:15:33 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-76-february-2009/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [129] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27664 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2008-11-17 10:14:22 [post_date_gmt] => 2008-11-17 10:14:22 [post_content] => Middle East Political Stability Henry Siegman, Lkhdar Brahimi, Eric Rouleau, Walid Khadduri Wither OPEC? Robert Mabro, Bassam Fattouh Personal Commentary Andrew Gould [post_title] => Issue 75 November 2008 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-75-november-2008 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2008-11-17 10:14:22 [post_modified_gmt] => 2008-11-17 10:14:22 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-75-november-2008/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [130] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27670 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2008-09-17 10:11:54 [post_date_gmt] => 2008-09-17 09:11:54 [post_content] => Limits and Possibilities of US Energy Policy Malcolm Keay, Jerome E. Roos, Jim Arrowsmith The Oil Price Conundrum Robert E. Mabro The Oil-Climate Bargain Peter Fox-Penner and Matthew McCaffree Personal Comment Mark Moody-Stuart [post_title] => Issue 74 September 2008 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-74-september-2008 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2008-09-17 10:11:54 [post_modified_gmt] => 2008-09-17 09:11:54 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-74-september-2008/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [131] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28318 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2008-05-17 10:09:43 [post_date_gmt] => 2008-05-17 09:09:43 [post_content] => Oil in Africa Jean-Pierre Favennec, Bassam Fattouh, Walid Khadduri, Philippe Copinschi, Gerald Doucet and Latsoucabé Fall US Presidential Candidates and Energy Michael Lynch Comments on Gas Demand, Contrasts and Prices James T. Jensen [post_title] => Issue 73 May 2008 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-73-may-2008-2 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2008-05-17 10:09:43 [post_modified_gmt] => 2008-05-17 09:09:43 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-73-may-2008-2/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [132] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27688 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2008-02-17 09:58:26 [post_date_gmt] => 2008-02-17 09:58:26 [post_content] => Gas and Transitional Fuel Jonathan Stern, Michael Stoppard, Burckhard Bergmann, Thierry Bros, Simon Pirani Assessments of Bali 2007 Benito Mueller, David Robinson Personal Commentary Nader Sultan [post_title] => Issue 72 February 2008 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-72-february-2008 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2008-02-17 09:58:26 [post_modified_gmt] => 2008-02-17 09:58:26 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-72-february-2008/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [133] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27694 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2007-11-17 09:55:36 [post_date_gmt] => 2007-11-17 09:55:36 [post_content] => Security of Supply Paul Isbell, John Gault, William C. Ramsay, Hasan M. Qabazard The Dynamics of Oil and Price Determination Paul Horsnell Letter and Comment Paul Newman, Robert Dudley Environment and Climate Change Simon Caney, Benito Mueller, Robert Ritz, Paul Newman, Liz Bossley [post_title] => Issue 71 November 2007 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-71-november-2007 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2007-11-17 09:55:36 [post_modified_gmt] => 2007-11-17 09:55:36 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-71-november-2007/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [134] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27700 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2007-09-17 09:53:39 [post_date_gmt] => 2007-09-17 08:53:39 [post_content] => Access to Oil Reserves Robert Mabro, Nordine Ait Laoussine, Michael Daly, Patrick Poyanne Angola's Entry in OPEC: a win-win move? Sadek Boussena The Battle of the Sour Futures Contracts Bassam Fattouh Venezuelan Oil - The Unfulfilled Promise Luis A. Pacheco [post_title] => Issue 70 September 2007 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-70-september-2007 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2007-09-17 09:53:39 [post_modified_gmt] => 2007-09-17 08:53:39 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-70-september-2007/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [135] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27709 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2007-05-17 09:48:44 [post_date_gmt] => 2007-05-17 08:48:44 [post_content] => Oil and Gas Developments in some American Countries Adrian Lajous, Rogerio Manso, Ivan Sandrea, Anouk Honoré China in Africa Lindsey Hilsum, Bassam Fattouh [post_title] => Issue 69 May 2007 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-69-may-2007 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2007-05-17 09:48:44 [post_modified_gmt] => 2007-05-17 08:48:44 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-69-may-2007/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [136] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27760 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2007-02-17 09:45:18 [post_date_gmt] => 2007-02-17 09:45:18 [post_content] => Nuclear Energy Alain Bucaille, Adnan Shihab-Eldin, Pierre-René Bauquis Climate Change, a Global Problem, is a Global Solution Possible? Peter Nichols The Oil Price Regime, Bassam Fattouh, Robert Mabro The Re-emergence of Ethanol Fuel in Brazil Eduardo Luiz Correia [post_title] => Issue 68 February 2007 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-68-february-2007 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2007-02-17 09:45:18 [post_modified_gmt] => 2007-02-17 09:45:18 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-68-february-2007/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [137] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27773 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2006-11-17 09:38:07 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-11-17 09:38:07 [post_content] => Energy Policy John Mitchell, Terra Allas, Peter Odell, Olivier Appert Energy in Flux Joseph Stanislaw US Environment Policy in states vs. the States David Fridley, Benito Müller Personal Commentary Adrian Lajous [post_title] => Issue 67 November 2006 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-67-november-2006 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2006-11-17 09:38:07 [post_modified_gmt] => 2006-11-17 09:38:07 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-67-november-2006/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [138] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27788 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2006-08-17 09:35:21 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-08-17 08:35:21 [post_content] => Is Russia a Threat to Energy Supplies? Jonathan Stern, Giacomo Luciani, Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff The UK Energy Review and Nuclear Power Charles Henderson The Geopolitical Causes of High Oil Prices Walid Khadduri, Eric Rouleau, Philippe Copinschi, Anouk Honoré Why is the Macroeconomic Impact of Oil Prices Different this Time? Christopher Allsopp [post_title] => Issue 66 August 2006 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-66-august-2006 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2006-08-17 09:35:21 [post_modified_gmt] => 2006-08-17 08:35:21 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-66-august-2006/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [139] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27799 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2006-06-17 09:29:51 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-06-17 08:29:51 [post_content] => The International Oil Companies Richard Gordon, Chriss Ross and Lane Sloan, Ged Davis Gas Prices in the uk : Markets and Insecurity of Supply Philip Wright The Engineering Procurement Construction Industry Malcolm Harrison The Gas Exporting Countries Forum and Europe Hadi Hallouche Some Farewell Comments Ian Skeet Personal Commentary Derek Riley [post_title] => Issue 65 June 2006 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-65-june-2006 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2006-06-17 09:29:51 [post_modified_gmt] => 2006-06-17 08:29:51 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-65-june-2006/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [140] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27824 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2006-02-17 09:26:15 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-02-17 09:26:15 [post_content] => Economic Implications of the Oil Price Increase Roger Van Noorden, Hassan Hakimian, Walid Khadduri Environmental Issues Malcolm Keay and Benito Muller The Role of Technology in reducing E&P Costs Mark Andersen The Strategies of non-OECD Gas Producers Hadi Hallouche, Michael Tamvakis, Bryan Train Personal Commentary Charles Henderson [post_title] => Issue 64 February 2006 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-64-february-2006 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2006-02-17 09:26:15 [post_modified_gmt] => 2006-02-17 09:26:15 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-64-february-2006/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [141] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27832 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2005-11-17 09:07:04 [post_date_gmt] => 2005-11-17 09:07:04 [post_content] => Upstream Taxation Alex Kemp, Pedro Van Meurs, Robert Arnott US Energy Policy Act of 2005 Shirley Neff and Amy Meyers Jaffe The Future of Russian Gas and Gazprom Jonathan Stern Too Many ‘Perfect Storms' Robert Skinner Personal Commentary John Mitchell [post_title] => Issue 63 November 2005 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-63-november-2005 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2005-11-17 09:07:04 [post_modified_gmt] => 2005-11-17 09:07:04 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-63-november-2005/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [142] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27839 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2005-08-17 09:04:16 [post_date_gmt] => 2005-08-17 08:04:16 [post_content] => Refining and Price Franz Ehrhardt, Douglas Terreson, Marshall Hall Impact of the Power Generation Sector on Future European Gas Demand Anouk Honore Oil Prices and Fundamentals Katherine Spector, David Long, Paul Horsnell [You can download the Paul Horsnell article here] Personal Commentary Julian West [post_title] => Issue 62 August 2005 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-62-august-2005 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2005-08-17 09:04:16 [post_modified_gmt] => 2005-08-17 08:04:16 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-62-august-2005/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [143] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27848 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2005-05-17 09:01:33 [post_date_gmt] => 2005-05-17 08:01:33 [post_content] => Nuclear Energy David Waller and Alan McDonald, Judith Greenwald, Paul Mobbs Indian Gas Supply: Elixir for Growth or Priced out of Reach Chris Hansen Oil Production Expectations outside the Middle East Andrew Hayman and Ivan Sandrea Personal Commentary Whalid Khadduri [post_title] => Issue 61 May 2005 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-61-may-2005 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2005-05-17 09:01:33 [post_modified_gmt] => 2005-05-17 08:01:33 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-61-may-2005/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [144] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27857 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2005-02-17 08:59:50 [post_date_gmt] => 2005-02-17 08:59:50 [post_content] => Energy Policy: Old Baggage John Mitchell Technology and Energy – 21st Century Outlook Bernard J. Bulkin OPEC and the 21st Century. What has Changed and what have we Learnt? Pedro Antonio Merino Garcia The Private Oil Companies: From Consolidation to Growth Robert Arnott What Role Derivatives? Paul Newman Multilateral Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia : Promise or Mirage? Philip Andrews-Speed, Xuanli Liao and Paul Stevens Lessons from North America Edward Morse [post_title] => Issue 60 February 2005 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-60-february-2005 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-02-29 14:04:32 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-29 14:04:32 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-60-february-2005/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [145] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27862 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2004-11-17 08:51:22 [post_date_gmt] => 2004-11-17 08:51:22 [post_content] => Investment in LNG David Ledesma, Ben Smith, Julia Richardson & John Burnes Jr Investment in Power Generation Lindsay Tuthill John Bower Mark Lijesen and Gijsbert Zwart Personal Commentary Philip J. Carroll [post_title] => Issue 59 November 2004 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-59-november-2004 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-02-29 14:04:11 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-29 14:04:11 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-59-november-2004/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [146] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27883 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2004-08-16 17:40:30 [post_date_gmt] => 2004-08-16 16:40:30 [post_content] => Why Oil Prices Have Moved Higher Paul Horsnell Gas to Liquids Howard Bevan, Johann Van Rheede, Bipin Patel Why Oil Prices Have Moved Higher Paul Horsnell The Value of Oil and Gas Reserves - SEC Definitions Peter Nicol, Brian Rhodes and Andy Crouch Personal Commentary Peter Odell [post_title] => Issue 58 August 2004 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => issue-58-august-2004 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-02-29 14:02:53 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-29 14:02:53 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/issue-58-august-2004/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [147] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27915 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2004-02-01 00:00:58 [post_date_gmt] => 2004-02-01 00:00:58 [post_content] => U.S. and EU federal authorities have wrongly concluded that lack of investment is causing transmission congestion and threatening system security in liberalised electricity markets. This perception has unfortunately been reinforced by the blackouts of summer 2003. [post_title] => Blackouts: Invest, Intervene or Inveigh? [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => blackouts-invest-intervene-or-inveigh [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2004-02-01 00:00:58 [post_modified_gmt] => 2004-02-01 00:00:58 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/blackouts-invest-intervene-or-inveigh/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [148] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 27946 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2003-03-01 00:00:34 [post_date_gmt] => 2003-03-01 00:00:34 [post_content] => The aim of this study is to investigate the future risks to supply for the global markets for oil, coal and uranium. The study forms part of an integrated project by the CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, which is developing a framework for a cost benefit analysis of energy supply security policy. [post_title] => Exploration of Future Risks on the Global Markets for Oil, Coal and Uranium [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => exploration-of-future-risks-on-the-global-markets-for-oil-coal-and-uranium [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-02-29 13:58:03 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-29 13:58:03 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/exploration-of-future-risks-on-the-global-markets-for-oil-coal-and-uranium/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [149] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 28159 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 1986-01-01 00:00:37 [post_date_gmt] => 1986-01-01 00:00:37 [post_content] => The recent history of the informal market f o r North Sea Brent blend has been of great interest to those studying commodity markets in general and the oil market in particular .  Two aspects of this market gives it this important position.  First, the very rapid growth inactivity in the Brent market means that for much of 1985 an average of at least 400 deals a month were being made. With each deal being for a lot size of 600,000 barrels of oil at around $25 a barrel the total turnover i n 1985 was at least $72 billion . The second feature of the market is that it operates as an informal forward market. There is no central clearing agency, as in a futures market, and so each deal is done directly between agents. [post_title] => The Brent Market: An Analysis of Recent Developments [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => the-brent-market-an-analysis-of-recent-developments [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-02-29 13:43:08 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-29 13:43:08 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/publications/the-brent-market-an-analysis-of-recent-developments/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) ) [post_count] => 150 [current_post] => -1 [in_the_loop] => [post] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 43006 [post_author] => 111 [post_date] => 2020-11-26 10:45:10 [post_date_gmt] => 2020-11-26 10:45:10 [post_content] => The oil price continues to shrug off many of the downside risks and Brent remains well supported, breaking out from the $40-$45/barrel price range and recently trading above $48/barrel. This is remarkable considering the mix of bearish factors (renewed mobility restrictions and lockdowns, the return of Libyan barrels, easing of China’s imports, the potential return of Iranian barrels, uncertainty about the next move for OPEC+, the large buffers in the system) and bullish factors (positive news about the vaccines, robust Asian demand, high OPEC+ compliance). In this podcast David Ledesma discusses with Bassam Fattouh his latest paper with Andreas Economou: Oil Market Recovery and Balance of Risks. How has the oil market been faring with the renewed restrictions and lockdowns? How have refineries been coping with the uneven impact of the shock? What are the main risks from the supply side? How have oil relations between Saudi Arabia and Russia evolved since the breakup of the OPEC+ agreement in March 2020? Is OPEC+ cohesion at risk? What about the potential return of Iran production now that Biden has won the US elections?  Will OPEC+ accommodate the potential return of Iranian barrels? How serious is the ‘missing barrels’ issue? What options do OPEC+ face? [post_title] => Oxford Energy Podcast - Oil Market Recovery and the Balance of Risks [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => oxford-energy-podcast-oil-market-recovery-and-the-balance-of-risks [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2020-11-26 10:45:10 [post_modified_gmt] => 2020-11-26 10:45:10 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://www.oxfordenergy.org/?post_type=publications&p=43006 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publications [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [comment_count] => 0 [current_comment] => -1 [found_posts] => 150 [max_num_pages] => 0 [max_num_comment_pages] => 0 [is_single] => [is_preview] => [is_page] => [is_archive] => 1 [is_date] => [is_year] => [is_month] => [is_day] => [is_time] => [is_author] => [is_category] => [is_tag] => [is_tax] => [is_search] => [is_feed] => [is_comment_feed] => [is_trackback] => [is_home] => [is_privacy_policy] => [is_404] => [is_embed] => [is_paged] => [is_admin] => [is_attachment] => [is_singular] => [is_robots] => [is_favicon] => [is_posts_page] => [is_post_type_archive] => 1 [query_vars_hash:WP_Query:private] => b2053cb122c8cedb0c94a47c843125c0 [query_vars_changed:WP_Query:private] => [thumbnails_cached] => [stopwords:WP_Query:private] => [compat_fields:WP_Query:private] => Array ( [0] => query_vars_hash [1] => query_vars_changed ) [compat_methods:WP_Query:private] => Array ( [0] => init_query_flags [1] => parse_tax_query ) )

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