Ten key conclusions from COP28: a farewell to fossil fuels?
Prior to COP28, which took place in Dubai between 30 November – 13 December 2023, we highlighted ten key issues which we believed would shape the outcome of the conference. This Energy Insight considers the topics which dominated the meeting, provides an overview of the most important outcomes, and discusses the debates that went on as the final conclusions were agreed and published. From the historic inclusion of fossil fuels in the final communique for the first time to other vital issues such as the global stocktake, climate finance, transition technologies, adaptation measures, methane emissions, and the loss and damage fund, COP28 generated significant debate, controversy and important decisions, although the language left room for multiple interpretations in a number of cases. This Insight attempts to disentangle the key issues, to understand the different viewpoints of the many participants and to analyse the implications for the future of the global energy economy.