Authors: A. Seymour,

Reformulated Gasoline, Lessons from America

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. The Background to the Reformulated Gasoline Programme
    The Demand for Cleaner Air
    Objectives
    Compositional Requirements
    The Composition of Phase One Reformulated Gasoline
    Associated Conventional Gasoline Specifications
  3. Enforcement Provisions of the Reformulated Gasoline Programme
    Introduction
    Refiner Options
    Tradeable Credits
    Testing
    The Ethanol Provision
    Matching the Supply of and Demand for Reformulated Gasoline
  4. Expectations
    Introduction
    Costs
    Supplies
    Logistics
    Markets
    Conclusion
  5. Experience
    Introduction
    Supplies
    Cost
    Logistical Constraints and Markets
    Refiner Profitability
    Conclusion
  6. Why?
    Introduction
    The Political Context
    Industry Flexibility
    The Short-Term Outlook 1995-7
    The Medium Term Outlook 1998-9
  7. The Political Dimensions of the Reformulated Gasoline Programme
    Introduction
    Reformulated Gasoline and the ‘Contract with America’
    Emerging Issues
    Concluding Remarks

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