Evaluation of Improvements in Petroleum Refining Technology: Incentives, Research & Development & Outcomes by

In 1942, the Fluid Catalytic Cracking process was presented to the petroleum refining industry. At the time of the innovation, it was no more profitable to operate than existing processes; it is only in the fifty years between then and now that its great potential has been realized. Realization has come through a stream of improvements, not one of which has equalled the genius of the concept of the fluidized bed, but all of which have required acute awareness and substantial effort.

By: John L. Enos