Distributed Vehicle to Grid Integration Over Communication and Physical Networks With Uncertainty Effects
This paper proposes a distributed framework for vehicle grid integration taking into account the communication and physical networks. To this end, we model the electric vehicle behavior that includes times of departure and arrival, state of charge, required energy, and its objectives, e.g., avoid battery degradation and willingness to pay. Next, we formulate the centralised day ahead distribution market which explicitly represents the physical system, supports unbalanced three phase networks with delta and wye connections, and incorporates the charging needs of electric vehicles under a uni- and a bi-directional charging scheme. The solution of the centralised market requires knowledge of electric vehicle information in terms of desired energy, departure and arrival times that electric vehicle owners are reluctant in providing. Moreover, the computational effort required to solve the day ahead distribution market in cases of numerous electric vehicles is very intensive. As such, we propose a distributed solution of the day ahead distribution market clearing mechanism over a time-varying communication network where no private information is exchanged. We also incorporate uncertainty of electric vehicle charging needs and provide guarantees on the probability of constraint satisfaction. We illustrate the proposed vehicle grid integration framework through the 13-bus, 33-bus, and 141-bus distribution feeders.
Apostolopoulou, D., Poudineh, R. and Sen, A., 2022. Distributed Vehicle to Grid Integration Over Communication and Physical Networks With Uncertainty Effects. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 13(1), pp.626-640.